IJ IPA is een India Pale Ale met 6,5% alcohol. IJ IPA wordt gebrouwen door Brouwerij 't IJ in Amsterdam. (https://www.biernet.nl/bier/merken/ij-ipa)
Brouwerij 't IJ is een Amsterdamse brouwerij waar uitsluitend speciaalbieren gebrouwen worden. De brouwerij is gevestigd in het oosten van de stad. Het bier wordt op twee locaties gebrouwen. Aan de Funenkade, naast Molen de Gooyer, worden alle tapbieren van de brouwerij gebrouwen. Op deze locatie bevindt zich ook het proeflokaal van de brouwerij. In de tweede brouwerij aan het Zeeburgerpad worden alle flesbieren gebrouwen. De totale capaciteit van de twee locaties is zo'n 22000hl per jaar. In 't Vondelpark is sinds 2019 het tweede proeflokaal gevestigd: Proeflokaal 't Blauwe Theehuis. (https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brouwerij_%27t_IJ)
Onze I.P.A. is een donkerblond bier met een uitgesproken hopsmaak. De afkorting staat voor India Pale Ale. Dat is een oorspronkelijk Engelse bierstijl die ontstond toen de Engelse ales een hoger alcoholpercentage en steviger hoprecept kregen. Zo overleefden ze de scheepsreis naar de koloniën beter. In onze I.P.A. hebben we niet alleen tijdens het brouwen, maar ook tijdens het rijpen hop aan het bier toegevoegd. Dat zorgt voor heerlijke aroma’s van grapefruit en bloemen. Een bier met een fruitige, bittere afdronk die lekker lang blijft hangen. Alcoholpercentage: 6,5% Drinktemperatuur: 8-10 graden (https://www.brouwerijhetij.nl/i-p-a-brouwerij-t-ij/0
Ook hier weer het bekende verhaal van de grote overtocht.
ecause of its popularity, most craft drinkers know – or think they know – how IPA began. To quote one version of the popular history of the style: "Back in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s, England held a large colonial presence in India. The soldiers, sailors and civilians had a huge appetite for beer. Trouble was, the voyage to India was long, and by the time the ship made it there the traditional beers had spoiled. Even when they didn't, the dark porters that were popular at the time weren't quite the ticket in the hot climate of India. George Hodgson of the Bow Brewery in London was the first person to come up with an answer to this problem. He began brewing a lighter style of beer, known as pale ale. Hodgson realized that high alcohol and hop levels would retard spoilage. His process succeeded, and for about 50 years he held a virtual monopoly on the market." Trouble is, almost none of the above is true. Ale and beer were being successfully exported to India – and farther – from at least the beginning of the 18th century, and while there was some spoilage, the beers that were being sent out could easily last a year or more in cask. So nobody needed to invent a new style of beer to survive the journey better. Porter continued to be popular in India through the 19th century, and strong dark beers are still drunk in hot climates, from Sri Lanka to the West Indies. Pale ales were around for at least a century before George Hodgson began brewing. (https://beerconnoisseur.com/articles/truth-about-origins-ipa)
By the 1760’s brewers were being advised that it was “absolutely necessary” to add extra hops to beer if it was being sent to warmer climes, but there is no evidence linking this advice to any specific brewer and certainly no evidence that Hodgson was the person who thought this plan up. Nor was the beer that became IPA particularly strong in alcohol: At around 6.5 percent alcohol by volume, it was, if anything, slightly weaker than average for the time. (https://beerconnoisseur.com/articles/truth-about-origins-ipa)
By the 1760s, brewers were advised to ramp up hopping rates when shipping beer to India and the Caribbean, the antiseptic flowers safeguarding beer—porters and pale ales alike—from spoilage. (Guinness Foreign Extra Stout is an espresso-like throwback to the centuries-old tradition.) The “pale ale prepared for the East and West India climate,” as the beer was sometimes touted, likely grew out of October beer, a generously hopped pale beer that was brewed in the fall, suited for extended aging on country estates. In the 19th century, brewers in Burton-on-Trent, including Bass and Allsopp, codified and popularized the new-breed pale ale. The key ingredient was the local gypsum-laced water, which created a drier, better clarified, and finely bitter beer.... While IPAs made the churning seafaring journey from England to India, the bitter ale was hardly the drink of rank-and-file soldiers. They mostly crushed porters, by then London’s dominant beer style. Civil servants, affluent Europeans and high-ranking officers consumed the pricier hopped pale ale, which never constituted the lion’s share of beer seal. (https://firstwefeast.com/drink/ipa-myths-debunked-craft-beer/everyone-in-india-drank-ipas)
The first guide to a recipe for pale ale shipped to the East does not appear to have been printed until 1821, when the first American edition of Andrew Ure’s Dictionary of Chemistry said: "It is well known that other things being equal, the liquor keeps in proportion to the quantity of hops. Fresh beer may have from a pound to a pound and a half to a barrel of 32 gallons, June beer two pounds and a half, beer for the month of August three pounds and for a second summer three and an half. For India voyages, four pounds." Whatever Hodgson's recipe was, the Bow brewery's pale ale was certainly the top seller in the East, even after the brewers of Burton upon Trent began exporting to India as well from 1822. In 1829 it was said that “Mr Hodgson’s beer … is by far the best and most sought after in India … In Calcutta Hodgson sold for 50 percent more than Meux, Whitbread, Barclay (three big London porter brewers), or any other brewer.” Ten years later, in 1839, it was described as “Hodgson’s ale, the universal and favourite beverage of our vast Indian territories.” However, this beer was called "pale ale for India," "Pale Ale prepared for the East and West India Climate" and similar circumlocutions, not the familiar name we know today. The first use of the phrase that eventually became shortened to IPA does not seem to occur until an advertisement in The Liverpool Mercury newspaper on January 30, 1835, for Hodgson's "East India Pale Ale." Even after this, many newspaper advertisements continued to talk about "Pale Ale as prepared for India" rather than "India Pale Ale" for another decade or so. (https://beerconnoisseur.com/articles/truth-about-origins-ipa)
Hodgson was the best-known of the early exporters of pale ale to India. But there is no evidence at all that he “invented” a new beer style. Pale ale was already being brewed in England before Hodgson. And the beer Hodgson brewed wasn’t called “India Pale Ale” until more than 40 years after he is first recorded as exporting beer to the Far East. Indeed, there is no evidence that IPA was “invented” at all. It looks more likely the style developed slowly from existing brews as “Pale Ale prepared for the India market”, and was eventually, around 1835, given a new and separate name, East India Pale Ale.... Pale ale was around from at least the 17th century and pale ales were being exported to India from at least the 1780s, if not before. And they weren’t drunk by the troops, either those of the East India Company’s forces or the later British Army forces in India, who much preferred porter, and continued drinking porter in India right through to the end of the 19th century. The pale ales exported by Hodgson, Bass, Allsopp and others were drunk by the middle and upper classes among the Europeans in India, the military officers and the “civil servants”, the civilians who worked for the East India Company, trading, administrating and collecting taxes....Beer did not need to be strong to survive the journey to India, and IPAs were not particularly strong for the time: they were only about 6 per cent to 6.5 per cent abv. Certainly by the 1760s brewers were being told that it was “absolutely necessary” to add extra hops to beer if it was being sent to somewhere warm. But this was not limited to India. And there is absolutely no evidence that George Hodgson of Bow introduced the idea of hopping export beers more strongly than beers for home consumption.... There is no record of any shipwreck being associated with the sale of IPA in the UK. “Pale Ale brewed expressly for the India market” and “suitable for warm climates or home consumption” was on sale in London in 1822, no shipwreck needed. But in fact IPA never took off in Britain until around 1841, after the railway had arrived in Burton upon Trent and made it much easier for the Burton brewers to send their bitter beers to markets around the UK. (https://www.klob.org/articles/2011/08/ipa-myths)
Update October 2015: never say never. It turns out there WAS a shipwreck off the coast of Lancashire, in 1839, after which pale ale which had been on its way to India was sold off in Liverpool – you can read about it here. But even so, “pale Ale brewed expressly for the India market” and “suitable for warm climates or home consumption” was on sale in London in 1822, no shipwreck needed. And IPA never took off in Britain until around 1841, after the railway had arrived in Burton upon Trent and made it much easier for the Burton brewers to send their bitter beers to markets around the UK. (https://zythophile.co.uk/2011/08/04/four-ipa-myths-that-need-to-be-stamped-out-for-ipaday/)
Here is one of the more authoritative sources (being both British and an historian of beer) who sorts things out nicely:
We have evidence that ale and beer were being exported, apparently successfully, to India as early as 1711. We know that by the 1760s brewers were being advised that it was “absolutely necessary” to add extra hops to beer if it was being sent to warmer climes. There is no evidence linking this advice, to hop export beer more heavily, to any specific brewer. We know that pale ale, along with porter, brewer unnamed, was being exported to India from at least 1784. We know that pale ale and porter brewed by Hodgson of Bow was being exported to India from at least 1793. We DON’T know whether the Hodgsons were putting extra hops into their pale ale sent to India in the 1790s, as brewers were being advised to do in the 1760s. Somewhere up to “quite probably” they were, I’d say. But still short of “definitely”. They ought to have known that they should do. But there’s no evidence that they did. (https://zythophile.co.uk/2010/03/31/ipa-the-executive-summary/)
We know that a specific hopping rate was being stated for beer for “India voyages” by 1821. We know that as early as January 1822, “Pale Ale brewed expressly for the India market” and “suitable for warm climates or home consumption” was on sale in London (though the brewer was unnamed). We know that a couple of decades later, at least, in 1843, “the Pale Ale prepared for the India market” was described as “carefully fermented, so as to be devoid of all sweetness, or, in other words, to be dry; and it contains double the usual quantity of hops.” We have evidence, 30 years after the event, but collected from an important witness, Samuel Allsopp’s maltster, Job Goodhead, that a Burton brewer was encouraged in 1822 to take on Hodgson in the Indian market. We know from multiple references that, despite the increased rivalry from Burton brewers, Hodgson’s beer was hugely popular in the east, being described in 1829 as “by far the best and most sought after in India”. We know that no “pale ale as prepared for the Indian market” seems to have actually been called India Pale Ale (specifically “East India Pale Ale”) until 1835 1829. We know that Hodgson’s, at least, used East Kent hops in its “Pale India Ale”, and we are entitled to guess that these were East Kent Goldings. We also know that Hodgson’s dry-hopped its pale ale. We know that the Hodgsons evidently became greedy, and lost the Indian market to others, including Bass and Allsopp from Burton and Ind & Smith from Romford, just east of London (later Ind Coope). We know that from 1841 onwards East India Pale Ale became increasingly popular in the British market. We know that in 1869 William Molyneaux claimed that “The origin of India ale is by common consent accredited to a London brewer named Hodgson … The brewery where pale ale was first brewed, according to popular opinion, was the Old Bow Brewery.” But Molyneaux offered no evidence to back this up, and we know the Bow brewery wasn’t the first place to brew pale ale per se. (https://zythophile.co.uk/2010/03/31/ipa-the-executive-summary/)
On a balmy January day in 1822, the Calcutta Gazette announced the unloading of "Hodgson's warranted prime picked ale of the genuine October brewing. Fully equal, if not superior, to any ever before received in the settlement." The army had been waiting for this — pale and bright and strong, those Kentish hops a taste of home (not to mention a scurvy-busting boost of antibiotics). The praise turned Hodgson's sons Mark and Frederick, who took over the brewery from their father soon after, ruthless. In the years to come, if they heard that another brewer was preparing a shipment, they'd flood the market to drive down prices and scare off the competition. They tightened their credit limits and hiked up their prices, eventually dumping the EIC altogether and shipping beer to India themselves. The suits downriver were not amused. By the late 1820s, EIC director Campbell Marjoribanks, in particular, had had enough. He stormed into Bow's rival Allsopp with a bottle of Hodgson's October beer and asked for a replica. (https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/how-india-pale-ale-got-its-name-180954891/)
What Maris Otter is to British beer, Cascade hops are to American. Thanks to high-profile flagships like Sierra Nevada's Pale and Anchor Brewing's Liberty, American pales are defined by the spritzy grapefruit blossom nose of Cascade hops. And John Segal grew them first. As influential as Cascades are, they're relatively new. Like Maris Otter, their roots go back to the late '60s. The American hops industry had never fully recovered since the one-two of Prohibition and a plague of the hop-withering parasite downy mildew in the late 1920s wiped out the crop and many of its buyers. Farmers grew almost entirely Clusters, a workhorse bittering hop, leaving the specialty strains to Europe: Coors Light's image may have been all-American, but its spicy-sweet nose was decidedly Teutonic, from aromatic Czech and German strains like Hallertau Mittelfruh. ... But when a fungus-spread epidemic of vertcillium wilt in the 1950s cut the Mittelfruh harvest and inflated prices, American brewers — already wary of the Cluster monoculture's susceptibility to a similar outbreak — started pushing for homegrown diversity. Coors talked to the Department of Agriculture, who talked to some breeders, who talked to John Segal, who planted a few samples of a hybrid strain he called “USDA56013” in 1968. Four years of test brewing (and a name change) later, and Coors bought Segal Ranch's first commercially available crop of Cascades, paying a dollar a pound at a time when most growers were lucky to get half that. Two years later, a fledgling San Francisco start-up called Anchor bought some for a new beer they were making, Liberty Ale. Liberty shocked American palates, the Cascade's citrus bite too aggressive for most. But growers saw its quality, and corresponding price, and Cascades soon swept the valley. Today, Liberty is a craft beer common denominator, and Cascades are an icon. (https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/how-india-pale-ale-got-its-name-180954891/)
Ik kocht een flesje in de winkel vanwege het etiket. Jarenlang stond daar een pin up, maar nu staat er een struisvogel. Het bier smaakt hoppig, maar niet harsachtig. Op het etiket staat dat het is gedryhopped met Cascade, Citra en Mosaic. Ik proef wel hop, dat is zeker.
Smaak & Omschrijving Heerlijke aroma’s van grapefruit en bloemen. De smaak van de IPA van 't IJ is heerlijk hoppig. Een speciaalbier met een fruitige bittere afdronk die je lang zult blijven proeven. De I.P.A. van Brouwerij 't IJ is een donkerblond bier met een uitgesproken hopsmaak. De afkorting staat voor India Pale Ale, van origine een Engelse bierstijl die ontstond toen de Engelse ales een hoger alcoholpercentage en steviger hoprecept kregen zodat ze de scheepsreis naar de koloniën (waaronder India) konden overleven. De hop en het hogere alcoholpercentage werkten als conserveringsmiddel. Dit recept bleek een gouden vondst en werd al snel populair. (https://www.biernet.nl/bier/merken/ij-ipa)
Mout: pilsmout en caramout / Hop: Citra en Cascade.(toegevoegd laatste 15 min koken en gedryhopt) Gist is ook het geheime ingrediënt van onze bieren. Wij hebben namelijk onze eigen huisgist en die is niet te krijgen. In Amsterdam brouwen wij met puur Amsterdams leidingwater. (https://www.brouwerijhetij.nl/i-p-a-brouwerij-t-ij/)
Brouwerij 't IJ is in 1983 opgericht door Kaspar Peterson, die na zijn tijd bij de Nederlandse band Door Mekaar besloot zich op de bieren te gaan richten. (https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brouwerij_%27t_IJ)
Vanaf 1985 is Brouwerij 't IJ gevestigd in het voormalig badhuis Funen, naast Molen de Gooyer in Amsterdam Oost. Op deze locatie wordt nog altijd gebrouwen en is ook het proeflokaal gevestigd. De eerste bieren die gebrouwen werden waren Zatte en Natte. Over de jaren kwamen er meer biersoorten vast of als seizoensbier bij en vonden de bieren ook steeds meer aftrek. Na 25 jaar besloot Peterson in 2008 te stoppen als eigenaar van Brouwerij 't IJ. Patrick Hendrikse en Bart Obertop werden de nieuwe eigenaren van de brouwerij. Omdat de ruimte in Badhuis Funen niet genoeg bleek om aan de groeiende vraag te voldoen, werd in 2012 besloten een tweede brouwlocatie te bouwen. Hiervoor is een pand betrokken aan het Zeeburgerpad in Amsterdam-Oost, op zo'n 800 meter van de oorspronkelijke brouwerij. Op 11 januari 2013 is er voor het eerst in deze nieuwe brouwerij gebrouwen. Alle fles en fust bieren van Brouwerij 't IJ komen nu hiervandaan, de tapbieren voor het proeflokaal worden nog altijd naast de molen gebrouwen. In 2015 nam de Belgische brouwerij Duvel Moortgat een belang in 't IJ. De omvang van het belang werd niet bekendgemaakt. (https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brouwerij_%27t_IJ)
In 2019 heeft Brouwerij 't IJ het alcoholpercentage van hun IPA verlaagd naar 6,5%. Door de ervaring van het brouwen van lager alcoholische bieren leerden de Amsterdamse brouwers dat een bier niet per se veel alcohol nodig heeft voor een smaakvolle hoppigheid. Tot op dat moment bevatte de IPA van 't IJ zeven procent alcohol. (https://www.biernet.nl/bier/merken/ij-ipa)
Opvallend dat na overname door Duvel het etiket en alcoholgehalte zijn veranderd. Toeval? Overigens vind ik beide veranderingen niet erg.