Via www.hobbybrouwen.nl/forum/index.php/topic,32531.0.html?PHPSESSID=ad59a1fb7240d1d215e47cdd5ce71ba2 kwam ik op een bierarcheologie-website: https://brewingclassical.wordpress.com/about/:
The “Classical” of this blog’s title refers to a commonly-used descriptor for the study of ancient Greece and Rome. Thus, this blog incorporates evidence from ca. 3000 BCE-500 CE. On occasion, I also incorporate translated Medieval and Renaissance texts from after the Classical period – so long as they are written in Latin and Ancient Greek! ( https://brewingclassical.wordpress.com/about/) Op de site staat een hele lijst aan auteurs van Griekse teksten.
Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE)
Natural History 22.81
Natural History 21.50
Ex iisdem fiunt et potus, zythum in Aegypto, caelia et cerea in Hispania, cervesia et plura genera in Gallia aliisque provinciis, quorum omnium spuma cutem feminarum in facie nutrit. Nam quod ad potum ipsum attinet, praestat ad vini transire mentionem . . .
“They make drinks from these very things [i.e. grains]: ‘zythos’ in Egypt, ‘caelia’ and ‘cerea’ in Spain, ‘cervesia’ and many other types in Gaul and the other provinces, and the yeast of all of these nourishes the skin on the faces of women. But with respect to drinks, it is preferable to pass to the mention of wine . . .
An ancient beer blog requires at least one reference to the eponymous hero of Russian River’s specialty beer line – Pliny the Elder. Unfortunately, Pliny the Elder does not have much to say on the topic of IPAs . . . or beer, in general (https://brewingclassical.wordpress.com/2016/07/24/pliny-the-elder-naturalis-historia-22-163/).
Greek and Latin Terms
Brutos (Greek) – Beer, originally Phrygian and Thracian
Camum (Latin) – A certain type of beer, originally Celtic?
Cerevisia (Latin) – Beer, originally Celtic. Also, cervisia, cervesia, cerevisa, cervesa
Cupa (Latin) – barrel, vat tun, task
Korma (Greek/Latin) – Beer, Celtic. Also, κουρμι, korma, curmen, curmi
Oinos Krithinos (Greek) – barley wine
Zythos (Greek) – barley beer; beer of the Egyptians. Latinized: zythum.
Beer Stone – Calcum Oxalate; a residue produced as a byproduct of beer production
Residue Analysis – the analysis of archaeological materials for evidence of organic residues (https://brewingclassical.wordpress.com/dictionary/)
Hubbard Amphora – Early Iron Age Cypriot amphora depicting an enthroned man drinking liquid from a straw; beer? (https://brewingclassical.wordpress.com/dictionary/)
Op de website is ook een tijdlijn opgezet van 800 Voor Christus met een Cypriotische Hubbard Amphora. tot het bier 540.
Aristotle geeft in 330 Voor Christus in Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 1.61 aan dat er verschil is in wijn en bier. En het gaat maar door:
300 BCE, ca. – [350-287 BCE] First use of the word “zythos” (Theophrastus, de causis plantarum 6.11.2)
79 CE, ca. – Records the different names of beer used by various Celtic tribes; beer is used by women as a restorative beauty treatment (Pliny the Elder, Natural History 22.81)
– First recorded use of “cerevisia” (Pliny the Elder)
-Possible description of hops (not in beer) (Pliny the Elder, Natural History 21.50) (https://brewingclassical.wordpress.com/timeline/)
Zythos is a Greek word that was first applied to Egyptian beer. The use of the word subsequently came to describe beer more generally. Zythos was applied specifically to barley beer.
This is the first part of an ongoing series: “define a beer-word.” Although it is not the most common word/term for beer in antiquity, zythos maintains a quiet legacy in modern brewing culture. In the endless pursuit to appeal to the hipster throwback culture and remain titular innovators, the brewing Illuminati and cognoscenti have previously used “zythos” to describe craft beers, beer lovers (i.e. zythophile), homebrew recipes, festivals, hops, etc. In English, the word sounds simultaneously exotic and hoity-toity (to be honest: more toity, than hoity) and will assuredly remain in the beer lexicon for many years to come (https://brewingclassical.wordpress.com/2016/07/11/zythos-defined/).
After having spent far too much time trying to reason with the presence of spent grains and pulses in the ancient Armenian beer, I was struck with an idea that I decided to test. I will outline the essential experiment, logic, and defense in this post....I was convinced there must be a functional (real or imagined) reason for the presence of spent grains and pulses in the fermenting wort. Certainly, this extra “food” would help with the fermentation by bacteria and other non-yeast critters that are present. But, it certainly will not contribute such a substantial amount of extra “food” (sugars, etc.) as to make up for the inefficiency of vessel space.
At some point, I had the following idea: perhaps the spent grains from a previous batch served as a yeast starter that helped to initiate fermentation in subsequent batches. I decided to test this and subsequently made a 1/2 gallon batch of wort and pitched 1 cup of grains from the bottom of the fermentation vessel of a previous batch. Fermentation kicked off within 12 hours and the yeast/trub on the older grains ripped through the sugars of the new batch. It was clear that this technique requires only a small amount of grains to be left in the fermenting vessel from each brew day (https://brewingclassical.wordpress.com/2016/10/12/hbw10-fermenting-xenophons-armenian-pulse-beer/comment-page-1/#comment-59). De praktijk wordt ook hier vermeld: www.hobbybrouwen.nl/forum/index.php/topic,32531.0.html?PHPSESSID=ad59a1fb7240d1d215e47cdd5ce71ba2. Fascinerend hoe die bierarcheologie oude dingen weer inzichtelijk maakt... en aantoont dat iets al jaren bestaat...