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woensdag 5 juli 2017

Jakovlev Jak-28


De Jakovlev Jak-28 (NAVO-codenaam: Brassard, Brewer, Firebar of Mangrove, naargelang de variant) was een straalaangedreven gevechtsvliegtuig met pijlvleugels gebruikt door de Sovjet-Unie. Hij werd gebouwd als bommenwerper, elektronische oorlogvoering, verkenningstoestel (NAVO-codenaam Brewer), onderscheppingsjager (Firebar) en trainer (Maestro). Het toestel maakte zijn eerste vlucht op 5 maart 1958 en kwam in dienst in 1960. Het Westen zag hem voor het eerst op de luchtvaartshow van Toesjino, op de Dag van de Arbeid 1961. Westerse analytici dachten in eerste instantie dat het een jager in plaats van een aanvalsvliegtuig was, en een doorontwikkeling van de Jak-25M en gaven hem daardoor de naam "Flashlight". Nadat zijn echte rol duidelijk werd, kreeg de Jak-28 bommenwerper serie de naam "Brewer".
De totale productie van alle Jak-28s was ongeveer 700. De Jak-28P werd eind jaren 1980 uit dienst gehaald, maar trainer en andere versies bleven nog in dienst tot na de val van de Sovjet-Unie, in ieder geval nog tot 1992. De Brewers werden uiteindelijk vervangen door de Soechoi Soe-24 "Fencer".
Er zijn vele varianten van de Jak-28 gebouwd. De eerste drie, Brewer-A, Brewer-B en Brewer-C, waren tactische bommenwerpers met een glazen neus voor een navigator/bombardier, een interne wapenlast van 3.000 kg, een voorwaarts vurend kanon (in eerste instantie de 23mm NR-23, later de GSj-23L dubbelloops) en vleugelophangpunten voor extra bommen of raketlanceerders. De Brewer-A en Brewer-B modellen kwamen niet in massaproductie en het eerste serie-geproduceerde model was de Jak-28B (Brewer-C), met langere motorinlaten en een herontworpen navigatorruimte. Ook kreeg hij de RBP-3 radargeleide bommenrichter.
In 1961 werd de Jak-28B opgewaardeerd tot Jak-28L, met een nieuwe radargeleide Lotosbommenrichter, in 1962 vervangen door de Jak-28I, met "Initiativa"-radar. De motoren werden vervangen door de R-11AF2-300 met 61 kN stuwkracht. Sommige Jak-28B's werden opgewaardeerd met de "Initiativa" radar en kregen de aanduiding Jak-28BI. Sommige Jak-28L's werden later aangepast voor het in de gaten houden van radioactieve vervuiling en kregen de aanduiding Jak-28RR.
De Jak-28R (Brewer-D) was een verkenningsversie met de glazen neus, maar wel met een zoekradar.
De Jak-28PP (Brewer-E) was een aangepaste Brewer-C, uitgerust met apparatuur voor elektronische oorlogvoering en elektronische tegenmaatregelen. Deze gebruikte het bommenruim voor de elektronische oorlogsvoeringsapparatuur. De ophangpunten aan de vleugels werden gehouden voor extra brandstoftanks of raketten. Vroege Jak-28PP's kunnen hun kanon gehouden hebben, maar die werd later verwijderd.
De Jak-28U (Maestro) was een trainer versie met een instructeurscockpit achter de standaard cockpit.
Een langeafstandsonderscheppingsjager, de Jak-28P (Firebar) werd ontwikkeld in 1965-1966. Het verwisselde het bommenruim voor extra brandstoftanks. Hierdoor werd de brandstofvoorraad aanzienlijk en eerder bepaald door het gewicht dan het volume. De Firebar kreeg ook een nieuwer Oriol-D onderscheppingsradar, compatibel met de R-98 (AA-3 Anab) lucht-luchtraket. Het kanon werd uiteindelijk verwijderd (https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakovlev_Jak-28).


Yakovlev Yak-28 ( NAVO bijnaam Brewer , Firebar en Maestro ) was een Russische militaire vliegtuigen geproduceerd door Jakovlev . Het vliegtuig had turbo straalmotoren , en is vooral bedoeld als een lichte bommenwerper en aanvalvliegtuig . Later werd echter aangepast aan zowel gevechtsvliegtuigen en verkenningsvliegtuigen (http://www.wikiwand.com/no/Jakovlev_Jak-28).




Alexander Yakovlev's experimental design bureau (OKB in its Russian acronym) provided the Soviet Union with the excellent "Yak" piston-powered fighters in World War II, and in the postwar period built a set of jet fighters evolved from their piston fighter designs that brief service lives, but allowed Soviet pilots to acquire experience with jet operation. ...the organization did make a major contribution to Cold War Red air power, in the form of a series of supersonic twinjet combat aircraft, the "Yak-25" through "Yak-28", that were built in good numbers and served in a wide range of roles -- including interceptor, reconnaissance platform, bomber, and countermeasures platform (www.airvectors.net/avyak25.html).

Yak-28 Brewer
The Yak-28 first entered service in the early 1960s. Four variants saw extensive service: the Yak-28 attack version, the Yak-28P Firebar all-weather interceptor, the Yak-28R multi-sensor reconnaissance aircraft, and the Yak-28U dual control trainer. The Yak-28P Firebar interceptor was withdrawn in the 1980s.
The wings are high-mounted, swept-back, and untapered from the engines to the large blunt tips. The wings have wide roots. There are two turbojet engines in pods under the wings. The pods extend well beyond the wings' leading and trailing edges. The fuselage is long with pointed, glazed nose and is tapered to the rear section. There is a bubble canopy and a belly fin under the rear section. The tail fin is swept-back and tapered with a blunt tip. The tail flats are mid-mounted on the tail fin, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips.
The Yak-28 was rather complicated, technologically inefficient and substantial modifications were done in Irkutsk to meet the customers' requirements. According to F.R. Kugel, a veteran of the IAIA "... the manufacture of this aircraft put the biggest number of questions related to the production run at the Irkutsk Factory, in terms of production process, machining, assembly, aerodynamics and flight testing."
The Yak-28 was the first tactical strike aircraft capable of flying at super-sonic speed with full armament. The aircraft structure was not adapted to the production run capabilities and required substantial modifications. The Irkutsk factory was chosen to produce the Yak-28 that had a vast experience in mastering the production of principally new aircraft types. Higher accuracy requirements to external aircraft lines, the necessity to provide structure strength and rigidity to break the sound barrier called for further production process improvements, introduction of many changes into the structures and implementation of new flight test programs.
After the Yak-28 took part in the air parade in Tushino on May 1, 1961, 'The New York Times' wrote that the USA had nothing to be compared with this aircraft. The Irkutsk factory manufactured the Yak-28 and its modifications fitted with various equipment during 12 years. Totally, 700 bombers, fighters, trainers, reconnaissance and other type of aircraft were produced (www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/yak-28.htm).

aircraft available for reconnaissance missions include the YAK-28 BREWER D and the IL-28R BEAGLE. Reconnaissance missions will often be flown at relatively low altitude, well within Stinger's engagement capability (www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/44-18/Ch1.htm).


"The Yakovlev Yak-28 was a swept wing, turbojet-powered combat aircraft used by the Soviet Union. Produced initially as a bomber, it was also manufactured in reconnaissance, electronic warfare, interceptor, and trainer versions, known by the NATO reporting names Brewer, Firebar, and Maestro respectively. Based on the Yak-129 prototype first flown on 5 March 1958, it began to enter service in 1960." From Wiki (http://theminiaturespage.com/boards/msg.mv?id=335900).


The Yakovlev Yak-28 proved a useful multirole performer for the Soviet Union during the Cold War years, seeing service as a bomber, interceptor and specialist platform.
Post-World War 2 swept-wing research - coupled with advanced in turbojet technology - allowed the Soviet Union to field many capable aircraft types during the Cold War decades. One, often overlooked, multi-role performer became the Yakovlev Yak-28 which began operational service as a high-speed, medium tactical bomber. The line eventually evolved to cover a wide variety of Soviet military aviation requirements including trainer, interceptor, fast reconnaissance and Electronic Warfare Aircraft (EWA) / Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) platforms. Due to the multiple guises presented, NATO provided three distinct codenames for each of the major variants - "Brewer" (A, B, and C marks for the tactical bomber forms), "Maestro" (for the two-seat trainer) and "Firebar" (interceptor form). The reconnaissance variants fell under the Brewer-D marker and EWA/ECM versions retained the original Brewer name as Brewer-E.
The Yakovlev concern began formal operations in 1934, just prior to World War 2, and produced several well-known military aircraft in its time including the wartime Yak-1, Yak-3[bedoelen ze niet Yak-2??], Yak-3 and Yak-9 piston-engined fighters. It also developed the Yak-38 "Forger" Vertical/Short Take-Off  and Landing (V/STOL) fighter for the Soviet Navy (www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=188).

The availability of one such improved engine, the Tumanskiy R-11-300 afterburning turbojet -- like that used on the MiG-21, and of the same family as the engine of the Yak-25RV Mangrove -- led to issue of a directive to the Yak OKB to build a tactical bomber along the lines of the Yak-26 using such new engines. The new machine was given the OKB designation of "Yak-129".
The modified "pointy nose" fuselage developed for the Yak-26 seemed like a good starting place for the Yak-129, with some modifications required, but the wing arrangement needed to be seriously re-thought. One problem was the fact that the R-11-300 engine was physically bigger than the RD-9F, leading to a clearance problem. The solution was to move the mid-mounted wing to a high-mounted position. The wing also had to be redesigned to permit higher speeds, with the new wing featuring a 45 degree sweepback at mid-chord, as well as a dogtooth and wingtip extensions as with the Yak-27R. The flaps were updated to a "Fowler" configuration, meaning they extended well behind the wing, making them more effective.
Three prototypes were built, the first two being rebuilds of Yak-26 machines. The initial prototype performed its first flight on 5 March 1958, with Volkov at the controls. The other two prototypes, which were assigned the service designation of "Yak-28", followed later in the year. Although OKB General Designer Alexander S. Yakovlev had not been very confident in the Yak-129, having been soured by the difficulties with the Yak-26 and Yak-27 development programs, performance was impressive and he became much more enthusiastic. Unfortunately, initial state trials resulted in a long list of complaints, though one of the big ones, the immaturity of the R-11-300 engines, was hardly the Yak OKB's fault.
The Yak-28 seemed promising enough to make fixing the bugs worthwhile, particularly since the VVS was desperate to obtain a supersonic tactical bomber, those being the days when subsonic performance was regarded as almost unacceptable. It was quickly approved for production, as the "Yak-28B", with the type performing a public fly-over at Tushino in 1961. It was assigned the NATO codename of "Brewer", which later became "Brewer-A" when other variants were observed.
* The Yak-28B was clearly a descendant of the Yak-25, but the evolution of the type meant there was very little in common between the two machines except for the general arrangement. The entirely new wings, engines, and engine nacelles have already been mentioned; the dogtooth wings were distinctive, as were the big engine nacelles, which had oval inlets with a prominent inlet bullet. Each of the Tumanskiy R-11AF-300 turbojets provided 56.4 kN (5,750 kgp / 12,676 lbf) afterburning thrust.
There was some commonality with the Yak-25 in the fuselage and tail, but there were many changes, such as the single-seat cockpit, with a back-sliding canopy, and the glass "pointy nose" for the bombardier. The Yak-28B also featured the twin-wheel nosegear and longer wheelbase, a brake parachute, and provisions for two rocket-assisted takeoff (RATO) boosters. Airbrakes were deleted.
The twin NR-37 cannon were replaced by a single 23 millimeter cannon on the right side, with an ammunition store of 50 rounds. In initial production, the weapon was a Nudelman-Richter NR-23 cannon, but in later production it was replaced by a Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23Ya cannon. The GSh-23Ya was an ingenious twin-barrel design, with the recoil of one barrel "charging" the other barrel in a "teeter-totter" fashion, providing a high rate of fire of 3,600 rounds per minute, compared to a maximum of 950 rounds per minute for the NR-23. It was originally a German design, but the Germans lost the war before they could put it into production, and the Soviets picked it up.
Normal bombload was 1,200 kilograms (2,645 pounds), though a 3,000 pound (6,600 pound) bomb could be carried in overload condition. All munitions were carried in an internal bombbay, which was climate-conditioned to permit carriage of nuclear weapons. Typical weapons loads included a 1,200 kilogram tactical nuclear weapon; a single 3,000 kilogram (6,600 pound) or 1,500 kilogram (3,300 pound) general purpose (GP) high explosive bomb; two 500 kilogram (1,100 pound) GP, incendiary, or cluster bombs; four 250 kilogram (550 pound) HE or cluster bombs; or eight 120 kilogram (265 pound) GP bombs.
The Yak-28B could carry a 1,000 liter (264 US gallon) slipper tank on each wing. The aircraft was fitted with an RBP-3 bombing radar in a radome on the belly below the rear of the cockpit. The RBP-3 was linked to the aircraft's autopilot to permit automatic attacks. Of course, an optical bombsight was retained. Total production quantities of the Yak-28B are unclear.
* In parallel with the Yak-28B, a "Yak-28L" variant was produced that deleted the targeting radar, replacing it with a "DBS-2S Lotos (Lotus)" (hence the "L" suffix) datalink bombing system. The Lotos system involved two mobile ground stations that could direct the Yak-28L to perform precision attacks in any weather, day or night.
The Yak-28L also featured uprated R-11AF2-300 turbojets, with 60.8 kN (6,200 kgp / 13,670 lbf) afterburning thrust each, as well as a fully variable exhaust nozzle, instead of the two-position nozzle used on the R-11AF-300. The uprated engines required modifications to the engine nacelles, with large circular inlets replacing the oval inlets of the Yak-28B. Larger slipper tanks, with a capacity of 1,050 liters (277 US gallons) were also introduced. The Yak-28L was assigned the NATO codename of "Brewer-B". It was not particularly popular, with only about 111 built. The Lotos system, with its dependence on mobile ground stations, was too complicated, and it was also vulnerable to jamming (www.airvectors.net/avyak25.html#m5).


First flight of a Yak-28 prototype - known under the model designation of "Yak-129") - occurred on Match 5th, 1958 [bedoelen ze 5 maart 1958?] and, upon passing the requisite trials, the aircraft was adopted into the inventory of the Soviet Air Force beginning in 1960. Eventual use spanned into general Soviet air defense branches and service in the post-Cold War/post-Soviet Empire service with a new emerging Russia, independent Ukraine and independent Turkmenistan. Production yielded 1,180 examples and initial delivered examples were the tactical bomber types, though in limited numbers and lacking any radar facilities.
As was the case throughout the Cold War years, the Yak-28 was not known to Western observers until its public display at the 1961 Tushino Air Show. The West incorrectly identified the aircraft as a further evolution of the Yak-25 "Flashlight" interceptor/reconnaissance line and granted the same codename. Despite some physical similarities, the aircraft was later revealed to be an all-new design and granted the "Brewer" codename.
The Yak-28's design continued the highly traditional, no-frills approach consistent with other Soviet turbojet-powered aircraft of the period. It was conventional in its layout, utilizing external engine nacelles slung under the swept-wing appendages. This assisted with general maintenance and replacement but added drag when compared to airframes who buried their powerplants within the fuselage. The wings were high-mounted monoplanes with good clearance for underwing stores across two hardpoints outboard of the engine nacelles. The fuselage was tubular in its general shape with a pointed nosecone assembly, framed canopy set ahead of midships and a swept tail unit with high-mounted horizontal planes. The planes were also swept in their appearance to promote maximum aerodynamic efficiency at the expected higher operating speeds. If there was one facet of the Yak-28 that was unconventional it was in its undercarriage which utilized a twin-wheeled nose leg and a twin-wheeled rear fuselage leg. Support for each wing during ground running was facilitated by single-wheeled stems near the wingtips. Overall, the undercarriage gave the aircraft a pronounced "nose-up" appearance with the fuselage sitting quit close to the ground (www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=188).


The history of the creation of high-altitude high-speed front-line bomber Yak-28 goes back to the decision of the Council of Ministers on 28 March 1956, under which the OKB-115 should be on the basis of the serial Yak-26 to create and assemble the newest cars which won the forthcoming designation of UC-129 or "product 129". Initially, it was planned to design a car for turbojet engines VC-11, which had a significant overestimation pulling power, but in the next it was decided to install them to abandon in favor of a more conventional turbojet engine brand P-11-300.
The first prototype of the machine was built by the beginning of 1958, and after the accelerated industrial test on March 5 of that year plane, designated Yak-28, was first raised in the air. Piloted the new aircraft test pilot VM Wolves, but during the flight became clear that the established by the new car turbojet engines P-11A-300 were not sufficiently massive and did not allow the bombers to achieve high-speed and high-altitude performance, set in the specifications. After removing all the flaws and shortcomings experienced on a machine that has received designation YAK-28-2, installed new aircraft engines R-11AF-300 and RBSN-2 (radiofrequency range navigation system) "Code". Also installed new gondola, equipment Laval nozzle, allowing to increment traction engines. Boarding the wing root to increase the strength has been replaced by iron. In order to reduce the fuel consumption has been redesigned vozduhopoglotitelya, now it was equipped on-off cone which put forward in achieving a good speed. During the test flight was also carried out from 1500-pound bombs and mock bombing at supersonic speed. Aircraft under the designation "product B" has successfully passed the tests, which lasted from September 1959 to May 1960, which showed good results for long, for example, the maximum speed with a full bomb load (1.2 tons) totaled 1,400 kilometers per hour at the afterburner 1,500 km per hour. After that, it was launched in the series and has received the designation Yak-28 (Brewer-A — ordering assigned to the machine in NATO), produced at an aircraft factory number 39 of the town of Irkutsk. Armament first mass-produced bomber in appearance is not enough different from the "Product B" YAK-28, consisted of a 23-mm aircraft cannon, HP-23, which changed in the upcoming twin aircraft gun GSH-23L. The biggest take-off weight at full bomb load of 3000 kg equal to 15,000 kg in store 4550 liters of fuel. provided a range of 2000 km is almost at the maximum speed of 1,900 km per hour. Common carrier wing area 35.25 square meters. meters, wingspan 11.78 meters, the total length of the machine of 20.02 meters and height of 4.3 meters. A total of 42 cars made 5 Yak-28 and Yak 37 aircraft model-28B differs from the previous installation of the radar scope RPB-3 which changed obsolete optical OPB-115.
Next was the design of the Yak-28VV for vertical take-off and the engines installed on it 27AF P-and R-39P-30, but then the prototype of the car is not moved, and the work was stopped. In addition to high-altitude supersonic bomber YAK-28, under the designation Yak-28BI in 1963, was designed, built, and then put into mass creation of a reconnaissance plane, filled radar "Bulat", was released only 50 cars of this modification and 188 Yak-28R (tactical scout) been produced right up to 1970. Designed as a scout the next version of the machine, has been called JAK-28RL, which planned to equip TARK-1 (TV-missile system), but built and tested was not. At the end of 1963, was built by another standard, adopted by the arms and released a large series of Yak-28I or "product 28I." It differed from its predecessors, first, an increase of more than 500 mm fuselage, round shape vozduhopoglotiteley and install the latest radar "innitsiativu-2." Also had an increased fuel supplies, allowing longer be in the air without refueling. The total number of machines built this modification 225.
Also, based on the Yak-28 interceptors were designed and built, some of them — all-weather supersonic interceptor Yak-28P, developed in 1960 — was released in sufficient quantity bolshennom — 435 cars. By unusual coincidence of events, officially adopted the Soviet Air Force was not taken, but the troops did, and operated until the 80s of the last century. The aircraft had an all-metal fuselage of circular cross-section and in front of the circular cross-section rolling in the tail. Sweep angle of the wings is 45 degrees. This modification in the reinforced gondolas installed engines running on aviation kerosene grade T-1 or TS-2, kitted autonomous system start-TRDR 11AF2-300, and a system which prevents icing. In the central part of the fuselage fuel tanks located 6, with total 5270 liters., In addition to some machines installed additional fuel tanks with a capacity of 1000 liters., Which were located in the wing. Bicycle landing gear is retractable in a specially designed fuselage compartments, front and rear supports two-wheeled, wing — unicycles. Flight range Yak-28P was increased to 2,370 km, and thanks to the supplies of fuel more than 7000 liters. the total time spent in the air was over 2 hours, service ceiling increased to 14,500 meters. Armament interceptor except gun GS-23L also included two guided missiles (SD) air-to-air K-8 M-1 or K-98 and two F-30 SD or R-60, located under the console to the wing pylons. The crew consisted of 2 persons and has a total cabin procession. In most of the produced machines installed automatic rate (autopilot) AK-28K-1 (http://survincity.com/2011/12/aircraft-yakovlev-yak-28/).


A third bomber variant, the "Yak-28I", featured an improved bombing radar, the "Initsiava-2 (Initiative-2)", hence the "I" suffix, with longer range and better resolution than the RPB-3 radar. The new radar was fitted into a slightly larger and reprofiled radome. The Yak-28I also featured the uprated R-11AF2-300 engines in the modified nacelles, and the other minor tweaks featured on the Yak-28L. The Yak-28I was assigned the NATO codename of "Brewer-C".
The Initsiava radar took a while to be persuaded to work properly, but the Brewer-C was built in good numbers, with about 223 produced. One was experimentally modified in 1969 with four underwing stores pylons to carry rocket pods or other munitions, being redesignated "Yak-28IM", with the "M" standing either for "Modifitzirovanniy (Modified)" or "Modernizirovanniy (Modernized)". The Yak-28IM was evaluated for a few years but the scheme was not adopted for service, the Brewer bombers clearly having a limited future by that time (www.airvectors.net/avyak25.html#m5).




The Yak-28 bomber was a further development of the Yak-25 and Yak-27 aircraft. The first flight was made on March 5, 1958 by test pilot V.M. Volkov.
The bomber armament comprised the NR-23 (23 mm) gun and a higher speed firing two-barrel GSh-23Ya (23 mm) mounted on later or upgraded aircraft. The bomber armament was placed in the fuselage bay. The normal armament load was 1000kg, maximum load -3000 kg, maximum bomb calibre - 3000 kg. In 1962, the Yak-28U trainers with two separate cockpits and dual control were manufactured in Irkutsk (183 aircraft).
In the mid-1950s, the requirements of combat aircraft changed almost every six months, which largely contributed to advances in engine building. Therefore, in the middle of the test Yak-26, March 28, 1956 issued a decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers #424-261 (MAP #194 order of 6 April), which forced the OKB-115 design and start construction on its base a new light high-altitude supersonic front bomber. According to this decree, the plane with a crew of two people should be equipped with two engines P-11-300 OKB S.K.Tumanskogo with a thrust of 3900 kg at maximum capacity and 5300-5500 kgf in afterburner.
The machine had the following basic requirements: take-off weight - 12000-13000 kg; the maximum speed at an altitude of 10,000 meters on the afterburner - 1500-1600 km / h (without afterburner - 1200-1300 km / h); the climb 10,000 meters in afterburner - 3-3.5 m; service ceiling - 16000-17000 m; run - 1000 m run - 1100 meters; range at an altitude of 10,000 m with a bomb load of 1200 kg (special products) - 2200-2400 km; normal bomb load - 1200 kg, overload - 3000 kg. To reduce the risk of back injury hemisphere needed to equip the aircraft with aft gun mount 23-mm gun and ammunition to 50 rounds. Design bomber was carried out under the code of the Yak-129.
At the very beginning of work on August 15, 1956 the Council of Ministers issued a decree #1115-578 (IAP order #453 of August 21), according to which the DB-115 is also instructed to develop a version of the aircraft by two very powerful engine VK-11 with a thrust to the maximum Mode 6,100 kg and 9,000 kg on the afterburner. This significantly increased the requirements for LTH bomber. Thus, the maximum speed on afterburner was increased to 2500 km / h, service ceiling - up to 20000-21000 m range at an altitude of 14000-15000 m at a speed of 1000 km / h - up to 2500 km and flying at 19000- 20 000 m - 2000 km (the 500-600 km - at a speed of 2000 km / h and 1400-1500 km - at a speed of 1000 km / h). The first of two prototypes should present to the factory tests in the I quarter of 1958, and in the IV quarter - on state tests. It was assumed that the VC-11 will be installed on heavy interceptor Sukhoi Design Bureau (T-37) and OKB Mikoyan (E-150), but he was not claimed, and for this reason did not run into production. Therefore, the task of installing it on the Yak-129 was removed.
The first flight of a new aircraft on March 5, 1958. In its air lifted chief test pilot OKB V.M.Volkov. From that day began factory testing machines, which were held at the airport LII and ended on October 4. By the time the new designation was assigned a serial bomber Yak-28. The plane got NATO code name Brewer-A (Brewer). Also Volkova, the aircraft overflew the test pilot plant #30 S.G.Petuhov and lead pilot LII S.N.Anohin.
Compared with the Yak-26, a new bomber takeoff weight increased to 12885 kg (normal bomb load of 1200 kg and 3200 kg of fuel left). Afterburner was able to reach a top speed of 1500 km / h. It was supposed to reach a ceiling in the 17,800 meters, but because of the self-switching afterburner achieved only 16,300 m. The pilots noticed quite satisfactory stability and control, good takeoff and landing characteristics (run and run ranged from 850 to 950 m). Re-assembly of the bow cockpit was approved factory not only for pilots, but also navigators. During the tests to improve the longitudinal stability at the root of the wing and the aerodynamic ridges HCHF installed. In addition, by analogy with the second prototype Yak-27R extended wingtips, which became the advocate for the rocker-wing fairing supports.
The second prototype (Yak-28-2) also got a serial remake of the Yak-26. From Yak-28-1 aircraft differed mainly new engines R-11AF-300 with a thrust in afterburner at 5750 kgs. Their use is required to develop new gondola with increased cross-sectional area, and air intakes oval. At the entrance to the air intake was established the central body of the new design, and the output of the engine nacelles - Laval nozzle, which, according to estimates, was to provide extra traction.
These nacelles were developed under the leadership of new chief engine department OKB Polikovskiy professor, former head of CIAM. When the trial began, it became clear that the acceleration of aircraft from M = 1.3 to M = 1.6 was very slow, and attempts to reach a maximum speed associated with fuel consumption so large that it may not be enough to return to the airfield. To reduce the loss of air intakes equipped with central cone-off, which was put forward when the speed corresponding to M = 1.45.
The Yak-28-2 carried out a number of other improvements. In particular, the resettable stabilizer was added. Wing skin at the root portion of the initiative after consultation TsAGI was replaced by steel. Checking the basic flight characteristics showed that the maximum speed of the aircraft near the ground is 950 km / h and at an altitude of 12,000 m -1250 km / h. During the test pilot OKB V.P.Smirnov flew to "Tretyakov" - one of the suburban unpaved airfields, which made landing and take off from unpaved runways with cement mock bomb weighing 1500 kg. After this test pilot and navigator N.M.Shipovsky S.G.Petuhov flew the bomber to Saratov, where it carried out jointly with the military bombing at supersonic speed (www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/yak-28.htm).
After finishing precision bombs to reset norms subsonic bomber, the main efforts focused on refining the nacelle and research new nozzle. However, even before their completion, the General Designer, inspired by the first success, decided to pass theaircraft in the GK NII VVS on state tests. The Institute's leading pilot of this machine has been assigned to the n-F.M.Sobolevsky, navigator - A.M.Halyavin.
In one of the operations on the airplane fuel disconnection occurred, and then the crew made a safe emergency landing on the ground outside the airport. For heroism in the rescue of the prototype, the crew was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
Despite the incident, the whole state tests went pretty quickly, because the Yak-28 was the only bomber at that time capable at altitudes of more than 10,000 m with a bomb load of 1200 kg to fly at a speed of about 1400 km / h. The third pilot vehicle Yak-28-3 (yellow tail number "56" was also allegedly converted from serial Yak-26 with the same tail number) for the design was similar to the second. She also participated in the trials.
Soon followed the decision to start serial production of the aircraft in an aircraft factory in Irkutsk. To assist this the enterprise directed a group of employees of OKB-115. The first production Yak-28 (a product "B") is not much different from the second prototype. Sights on them were limited, because the bombers were equipped with a telescopic sight, because radar has not yet been implemented in the series.
In 1960, the production Yak-28B front-line bomber was manufactured at the Irkutsk factory. The Yak-28 was the first serial tactic strike aircraft capable of flying the super-sound speed with full armament. The aircraft was equipped with the OPB-115 optic sight and RBP-3 radar bombsight. The production Yak-25Bs were tested by test pilots E.N. Tcheltsov, G.M. Kurkai, G.I. Starostenko, N.N. Ivanov, V.S.Prantskyavitchus, G.E. Bulanov, A,M. Yaroshevitch, V.P. Naurov.
In total, attack units received about 350 Yak-28 of various modifications. In the mid-1970s the Yak-28 aircraft began to give way to the next generation of aircraft Su-24. The Yak-28 left its mark in the history of aircraft. By itself it created such different purposes production aircraft based on a glider - a rare phenomenon in the Soviet aircraft industry. And abroad, there were few such examples (www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/yak-28.htm).


The three bomber variants weren't the whole story for the Brewer. Being a hot machine, there were worries that pilots converting to the Yak-28 might find it a handful, and so a two-seat conversion trainer, the "Yak-28U", where "U" stood for "Ubchebniy (training)", was produced.
The prototype was rolled out in 1962, with the type quickly going into service. It was basically a Yak-28B, with the R-11AF-300 engines and elliptical inlets -- since the Yak-28U wasn't meant for combat service, the lower-rated engines were judged satisfactory -- and a new nose that eliminated the bombardier's glazing and contained a second, independent cockpit for the flight instructor. The canopy of the nose cockpit hinged open to the right. The cannon and radar were deleted. The bombbay was retained, though it was fitted with a fuel tank. The Yak-28U was assigned the NATO codename of "Maestro", the "M" name indicating a "Miscellaneous" type. Total production was 183 aircraft (www.airvectors.net/avyak25.html#m5).


The Yak -28 first entered service in the early 1960s. Four variants saw extensive: the Yak-28 attack version, the Yak-28P Firebar all-weather interceptor, the Yak-28R multi-sensor reconnaissance aircraft, and the Yak-28U dual control trainer. The Yak-28P Firebar interceptor was withdrawn in the 1980s.
The wings are high-mounted, swept-back, and untapered from the engines to the large blunt tips. The wings have wide roots. There are two turbojet engines in pods under the wings. The pods extend well beyond the wings leading and trailing edges. The fuselage is long with pointed, glazed nose and is tapered to the rear section. There is a bubble canopy and a belly fin under the rear section. The tail fin is swept-back and tapered with a blunt tip. The tail flats are mid-mounted on the tail fin, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips (https://fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/airdef/yak-28.htm).

Of course a reconnaissance version, the "Yak-28R", was built, with the prototype rolled out in 1963 and the variant going into service in 1966. The Yak-28R was basically a Yak-28I, with the uprated R-11AF2-300 engines and an "Initsiava-2R" radar optimized for reconnaissance mission.
A total of 183 Yak-28Rs was built, including subvariants. The type was assigned the NATO codename of "Brewer-D". There were a number of modifications and subvariants of the Yak-28R:
In 1966, one Yak-28R was modified to carry the TARK-1 realtime reconnaissance system, featuring a TV camera and a radio datalink, with the datalink system replacing the Initsiava-2R radar in the radome. The evaluation was successful, and several other Yak-28Rs were converted to this configuration. They were not given a revised designation.
Late-production Yak-28Rs carried an active jammer system for self-defense. These machines were given the designation of "Yak-28SR".
In the late 1960s, a number of Yak-28Rs were modified for the radiation reconnaissance mission by being fitted with air sampling pods, carried on the droptank hardpoints, and other minor kit. These machines were redesignated "Yak-28RR". It appears that a few Yak-28L bombers were also used for the radiation reconnaissance mission by the simple measure of fitting them with air sampling pods, with these machines redesignated "Yak-28LR" (www.airvectors.net/avyak25.html#m5).

In the mid-1960s, one Yak-28L was converted to a "defense suppression" -- or, as the Americans would say, "Wild Weasel" -- configuration, fitted for carriage of two Kh-28 (NATO AS-9 Kyle) anti-radar missiles in place of the wing tanks, with the bombing system replaced by a radar homing and warning system (RHAWS) to target radars. This machine was designated "Yak-28N", where "N" stood for "Nositel (Carrier)", meaning "missile carrier". The conclusion of the exercise was that a more modern machine was needed for the tough defense suppression mission, and the Mikoyan MiG-25BM "Foxbat-F" was obtained for that role instead.
In roughly the same timeframe, another Yak-28I was modified as a radar reconnaissance machine, carrying a "Bulat (Damask Steel)" side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) in the bombbay, with the SLAR antenna deployed out of the bombbay when observations were to be made. This machine was redesignated "Yak-28BI". It also was not adopted for service.
However, an electronic countermeasures variant, the "Yak-28PP", where "PP" stood for "Postanovschshik Pomekh (Countermeasures Aircraft)", did go into service. The Yak-28PP was developed in the late 1960s and entered production in 1970. It was something of a hybrid, with the cockpit and canopy of the Yak-28R, but the nose glazing of the Yak-28L; exactly why a countermeasures aircraft needed nose glazing is an interesting little question (www.airvectors.net/avyak25.html#m5).

The Yak-28PP was fitted with the uprated R-11AF2-300 engines, and was crammed full of countermeasures gear, leading to a clutter of antenna fairings over the fuselage. The Yak-28PP was unarmed, but it could carry a pod of 57-millimeter rockets on each outer wing, with the rockets carrying warheads full of chaff to blind adversary radars; the aircraft was also fitted with chaff-flare dispensers for self-defense. The Yak-28PP was designed to accompany attack aircraft as they penetrated hostile airspace, using its jammers and chaff rockets to protect the strike package. Total production of the Yak-28PP is unclear.
* As mentioned, the Brewer series was rushed into service to give the VVS a supersonic strike capability. To no great surprise, at the outset reliability, particularly of the engines, was nothing to write home about. The Brewer was a more complicated machine than the previous generation of Soviet aircraft, with the result that manufacturing and maintenance were strained accordingly. The worst problems were fixed in time, but the type would never achieve the "shovel sturdiness" of the best Soviet gear, and the accident rate would be high -- though in maturity, the accidents were usually due to pilot error or failure to perform proper maintenance, the machine being unforgiving of either.
The Brewer was not a particularly friendly aircraft to fly; it was a high performance machine, and though the old Flashlight had good single-engine handling, the Brewer was less docile and used much more powerful engines, making it a nasty handful with an engine out. Few pilots could expect to handle the Brewer safely without familiarization in the Maestro trainer. Its supersonic range was short, and the bicycle landing gear configuration made loading it up with bombs laborious.
There were VVS pilots who really preferred the old, rugged, reliable Il-28 Beagle for the low-level attack role. However, the blazing performance of the Brewer was liked -- few pilots find flying a hot aircraft entirely disagreeable, as long as the thing isn't a deathtrap -- and VVS crews did learn some affection for the type, while acknowledging that it was a demanding mistress. It was nicknamed "Raschoska (Comb)", because with wing tanks it had a distinctly "toothy" appearance from below.
Brewers originally flew in natural metal colors, but later they featured disruptive camouflage schemes, which were applied in a few cases to the Maestro trainers even though they had no real operational capability. Brewer bombers participated in the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, but dropped no bombs.
The only actual strikes performed by any of the Brewer bombers were on 9 November 1975 -- against Soviet shipping. The crew of a Red Navy frigate operating in the Baltic, the STOROZEVHOY, had mutinied the day before, and the authorities ordered the vessel sunk before it could reach neutral port in Sweden. Some officials were so vexed that they wanted the frigate obliterated with a tactical nuclear weapon, but they were overruled by calmer heads. Although the weather was lousy, a Yak-28B found the ship and dropped two 250 kilogram (550 pound) HE bombs behind its stern, persuading the crew to surrender.
The weather was so poor that another Yak-28B hit a Soviet bulk cargo carrier by mistake; another attacked the cutter belonging to the commander of the Soviet Baltic fleet, but missed. The attack on the cargo carrier fortunately didn't result in any fatalities, and the Red Navy compensated the shipping organization for the damage -- while also providing a few cans of pure grain alcohol to the crew as an apology.
The bomber Brewers were replaced by the Sukhoi Su-24 "Fencer" beginning in the mid-1970s, but the Yak-28R reconnaissance aircraft and the Yak-28PP countermeasures aircraft soldiered on. The Yak-28R was the only Brewer to see any real war service, flying reconnaissance missions in border clashes with the Red Chinese in 1969, and over Afghanistan in the 1980s. The Yak-28R was generally out of service by the end of the 1980s, but the Yak-28PP, which was an integral component of VVS strike doctrine, lingered on into the mid-1990s, after the fall of the USSR (www.airvectors.net/avyak25.html#m5).


Yak-28 Bomber Variants
The Yak-28 was born as a medium-class tactical bomber and initially delivered in the basic, limited production Yak-28-designated form. This was followed by the Yak-28B ("Brewer-A") bomber variant which added weapon-assisted radar functionality and support for Jet-Assisted Take-Off (JATO) pods, the latter for quick-reaction take-offs. Another tactical bomber form was the Yak-28L ("Brewer-B") which installed a ground-based targeting system, production of this model peaking at 111 examples. The Yak-28I ("Brewer-C") integrated an onboard ground mapping radar with targeting system for improved tactical value. Production of this mark totaled 223 units.
The Yak-28P Interceptor
The Yak-28P became the dedicated long-range, missile-armed interceptor which could be called upon, in relatively short order, to take on marauding Western bombers or spy planes. The type was born in 1960 and entered service as soon as 1964. These versions lacked the internal bomb bay of their tactical bomber brethren which allowed for more onboard fuel stores to be exercised. An interception radar was standard and fitted in the nose cone assembly while integrated with the aircraft's missile-only payload. Production resulted in 435 aircraft.
Yak-28P Interceptor Performance
The Yak-28P was powered by 2 x Tumansky R-11 series afterburning turbojet engines delivering 10,140lbs on dry thrust and 13,670lbs with afterburning engaged. Maximum speed was 1,140 miles per hour with a range out to 1,550 miles and a service ceiling of 55,000 feet. Armament was generally 2 x R-98M (AA-3 "Anab") medium-ranged, air-to-air missiles and 2 x K-13A (AA-2 "Atoll") short-ranged air-to-air missiles. The aircraft carried a mix of R-98M missiles, typically an infrared homing and a semi-active radar homing version. No internal cannon was fitted.
Yak-28U "Maestro" Two-Seat Trainer
The Yak-28U ("Maestro") was the standard Yak-28 trainer which incorporated a second cockpit for a student pilot in the nose cone assembly. This retained a commanding, elevated view for the instructor seated in the original (now rear) cockpit. The initial prototype went airborne in 1962 and production reached 183 units.
The Yak-28R "Brewer-D" Tactical Reconnaissance Mounts
Tactical reconnaissance sorties were managed by the Yak-28R ("Brewer-D") variant which featured a special, heavily glazed nose cone and additional reconnaissance equipment for the role. This model was based on the preceding Yak-28I tactical bomber airframe. A prototype appeared in 1963 and production eventually reached 183 examples. The Yak-28SR was another reconnaissance form of limited production outfitted with either the SPS-141 or SPS0143 series active radio/radar jamming suite. The Yak-28TARK was yet another reconnaissance platform which allowed for real-time image gathering and integration for a ground control receiver for subsequent interpretation. The Yak-28RR utilized specialized equipment pods to sample environments for fallout data as related to Soviet nuclear weapons testing and Yak-28RL aircraft were of similar scope and function.
The Yak-28PP in EWA Form
The Yak-28PP was an airframe conversion for the Electronic CounterMeasure (ECM) role, equipped with an Electronic Warfare (EW) suite in the internal bomb bay and special streamlined pods fitted outboard of the engine nacelles. These airframes were typically unarmed for the role, intended to solely jam enemy signals. In the EWA role, the Yak-28 was formally replaced by similarly-equipped Sukhoi Su-24 "Fencer" aircraft. The Su-24 also took over the high-speed reconnaissance role from retiring Yak-28s.
Yak-28 Experimental Projects
The Yak-28UVP became a testbed intended to experiment with Short Take-Off and landing (STOL) operations. The Yak-28SR was a one-off airframe testing chemical spraying - none entered formal service. The Yak-28VV was a prototype outfitted for Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) that was never ordered for service. The Yak-28LSh was another abandoned project intended to field a light attack platform engineered to a new Soviet Air Force requirement - it was not selected. The Yak-28PM was intended as a modernized interceptor form bringing about use of the R11AF3-300 series turbojet engine. Testing began in 1963 but was slowed by engine issues and, when engine development ended, so too did the Yak-28PM project. The Yak-28URP tested rocket-boost equipment for fast interception of high-altitude enemy aircraft. The Yak-28-64 was a one-off modified Yak-28P outfitted with Tumansky R-11F2-300 series turbojet engines, now buried in the rear fuselage in a side-by-side configuration (similar to the Mikoyan MiG-19). The engines were aspirated by side-mounted intakes along the outer cockpit walls. The type was being developed as a contender against the Sukhoi Su-15 project which eventually netted Sukhoi the contract as the Yakovlev product was shown to be outmatched by the competition.
Final Yak-28 Usage
The final Yak-28s were retired from the Russian Air Force in the early 1990s (final Russian examples known until 1992). The Russian Air Force naturally inherited its stock of Yak-28s from the collapsed aviation arm of the Soviet Union (1991). Similarly, the Ukraine took over possession of some 35 Yak-28s after the end of the Soviet Empire. Turkmenistan became the only notable operator of the aircraft line (www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=188).

`

The Cold War was at its peak when on April 6, 1966, a top secret Soviet fighter aircraft crashed into the Havelsee, a lake straddling the British and Russian sectors of Berlin.
The British immediately mounted a salvage operation, promising to return the aircraft and the bodies of its two pilots to the Russians.
But as a barge and a crane were set up on the lake's surface to recover the aircraft, beneath the surface a very different operation was in train - to take its top-secret technology back to Britain where it could be examined.
The top-secret fighter was later identified as a Yak-28, Nato codename Firebar, with what was already clearly a unique radar capability. Britain and America were desperate to know what made it so good. Now they had their chance. It was 10.09pm on day one, nearly seven hours after the crash. The Brixmis interpreters were ordered to do everything they could to buy time, trying to mollify the by now clearly concerned Bulanov.
At the same time, technical experts were flown out from the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough to examine the aircraft's Skipspin radar, which unlike the then western systems could look up and down as well as straight ahead.
Down below the water, one British serviceman was trying to get the pilots out of the aircraft so they could be examined by the intelligence experts.
By 1.45pm on the second day the bodies had been bagged up and, below the water, work was going on to remove the radar. Meanwhile, Major Geoffrey Stephenson, one of the British interpreters, persuaded Bulanov that they were still trying to recover the bodies of the crew.
But the Russians were suspicious the British might spirit something out under cover of night. Bulanov accused the British of having troops ready to shoot any Russian who got near the site. Major Johnathan Backhouse, the Brixmis interpreter on duty, denied this.
Bulanov's response was to order up a platoon of Soviet guardsmen and to march them down a track towards the lakeside. "We hadn't gone a dozen yards when suddenly two riflemen jumped out of the dark," Major Backhouse recalled. Both sides clicked off their safety catches and there was a long pause as the British officer frantically thought of a way to defuse the situation.
Hoping the British infantryman would back up his claim that there was no attempt to stop the Russians finding out what was going on, he asked: "Are you authorised to let this Soviet officer pass?"
"Not on your *******ing life, sir," the British soldier replied.
Fortunately, Bulanov roared with laughter and ordered his men back before turning to Major Backhouse and saying: "I think, major, Russian intelligence is superior to yours."
At 4.07 that morning the bodies were slipped back on to the raft. As dawn broke, the Russians were informed they had been recovered and would be handed over that evening.
The cockpit radar unit was already on its way back to Britain to be examined but they needed more time to get the radar dish out of the nose cone, which was buried in the mud.
At 2.40pm that day, the Russians noted a launch arriving at the raft to offload a couple of apparently unimportant passengers before departing towards the shoreline of the British sector.
What they did not see was the divers attaching the jet engines by line to the launch which dragged them along behind it taking them to a jetty a mile from the wreck where they were loaded into crates and flown back to Farnborough for examination. Meanwhile the pilots' bodies were handed over to Bulanov. Within 48 hours, the engines and the cockpit radar unit had been carefully returned to the Firebar's wreckage.
It was at midnight on April 13, that the raft sailed to the Soviet sector where piece by piece the wreckage was handed over to the Russians.
As the engines were handed over, Bulanov looked at them and could clearly see that the tips of some of the rotor blades had been sawn off.
"He didn't say a word," Stephenson said. "He simply looked at me and shrugged, as if to say: 'I've been screwed', and of course he had."
Then the Russians discovered that something was missing. The British insisted that everything had been handed over. If anything was missing it must still be down on the floor of the Havelsee.
What was missing? The Russians were unable to reply. They could hardly say it was a top secret radar dish. They just had to hope the British were right and it was on the bottom of the lake.
It had taken a long time to get the radar dish out. But Brixmis had managed it.
They hadn't had time to put it back but they had pulled it out and the resultant changes to RAF aircraft to deceive the Skipspin radar restored parity in the Cold War.


1989, the year when the Soviet empire fell apart, marked the end of the deployment of the outdated Yak-28 in Germany. One of the first discoveries made at Werneuchen after the withdrawal of the Russians was a special 'GRANIT-2' storage bunker, the existence of which seemed to contradict the basing there of reconnaisance and electronic warfare aircraft - specifically the Yak-27, Yak-28 and MiG-25. A full analysis of this particular bunker and its immediate surroundings, and a detailed look at the deployment history of that air base, was necessary to solve this puzzle. The stationing at Werneuchen of offensive weapons ended, as is well known, in 1968 with the withdrawal of all frontal bombers (those of the 132.BAD) from the GDR. A reconnaissance unit, the 931.OGvRAP, was transferred from Stendal to Werneuchen. Reconnaissance aircraft can obviously be modified to drop bombs, but did they also have a nuclear capability? Some years ago, the author of this article met a Yak-28 pilot from that time. Surpirsingly, Guards Captain Oleg Kozlov now lives in Germany, in Hamburg. From 1986 to 1989, he was one of the few to fly the Yak-28PP 'Brewer-E' electronic warfare variant, and he spoke freely about his time at Werneuchen, saying:
'Our air base also had its share of the glukhonyemye (deaf mutes).' [These were the personnel responsible for the nuclear weapons, who were not allowed to speak with other people about their work. Even if other military personnel asked, they never answered, hence the nickname. These officers were deemed so important that they even had permission to buy a car in East Germany, which Russian personnel were not normally allowed to do. At Werneuchen, for instance, only the base commander and the commander of the nuclear personnel could do so - it was a great thing, for a normal person in the GDR had to wait 12 years for a private car.] Kozlov continued: 'I served as a pilot in the 2nd squadron of the 931st Separate Guards Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment. The MiG-25 reconnaissance aircraft of the 1st squadron were also intended to deploy nuclear weapons. The loading exercises for this were carried out mostly at night. While maintaining radio silence there were several [conventional] training flights over the Belorussian SSR. 500kg dummy bombs were dropped from an altitude of 20km over the Luninets bombing range. Even though I received the flight engineer qualification at the Barnaul Flight School (BVVAUL) I did not receive any special training concerning the deployment of nuclear weapons. My Yak-28PP could only carry two UB-16 rocket pods under its wings, out of which 57mm S-5P electronic jamming devices could be discharged.'
(www.16va.be/3.8_armes_speciales_eng_part3.html)

The Brewer series evolved from an interceptor, the Yak-25, and evolved back into an interceptor again. In 1960, the Yak OKB was tasked with the development of a Yak-28 interceptor variant, designated the "Yak-28P". The type entered operational service with the PVO in 1964. The West didn't get a good look at the Yak-28P until 1967; it was then given the abstract NATO codename of "Firebar". The Yak-28P was a fairly straightforward adaptation of the Brewer,... The phaseout of the Yak-28P began in the late 1960s, but stretched out through the next decade, with the last of them removed from PVO service in the early 1980s.
There were a number of experimental modifications of the Yak-28P, including a machine with "blown flaps"; various engine and AAM testbeds; and one with a liquid-fuel booster rocket in the tail, designated "Yak-28URP". There was also an attempt in 1964 to develop a successor to the Firebar, designated the "Yak-28-64".... Flight tests began in 1966 but they didn't last long, since the Yak-28-64 was obviously a dog: performance was poor, and the type suffered from a number of unpleasant handling faults. The Su-15 was clearly superior and the Yak-28-64 effort was quickly abandoned.
The Yakovlev OKB never flew another fighter, not counting the notorious Yak-38 "Forger" vertical-takeoff (VTOL) fighter, said to be so unpleasant to fly that pilots would go on the sicklist rather than get into it; and the much better Yak-41 "Freestyle" VTOL fighter, which never went into production. The OKB did conduct a series of design studies, in particular for Soviet efforts in the early 1970s to develop a new "lightweight fighter" and a new "heavyweight fighter". The Yak offerings consisted of the lightweight "Yak-45" and the heavyweight "Yak-47", which were very similar configurationally, featuring twin engines and with something of a design flavor of the earlier Yak twinjet fighters. The requirements were actually met by the lightweight Mikoyan MiG-29 and the heavyweight Sukhoi Su-27 (www.airvectors.net/avyak25.html#m5). Overigens staan die 40+ vliegtuigen niet eens op Wikipedia.

Na zo'n uitgebreide infodump over een Russisch vliegtuig uit de koude oorlog, zou je bijna vergeten dat dit een bierblog is.

Om iets te vinden over bier of een brouwerij in relatie tot de Yak 28 is lastig. Wel vind ik iets in relatie tot 'yak':
Yak & Yeti is een Indiase/Tibetaanse brewpub in Arvada, op zo'n 15 minuten van Denver. Ze waren de eerste brouwerij in die plaats. Vlakbij hen opende in 2011 de Arvada Beer Company. Bij Yak & Yeti brouwen o.a. een Chai stout (zie Beer Lover's Colorado, door Lee Williams, pagina's 44, 56 en 57).  Als ik echter zoek op YakandYeti kom ik uit op:

Hotel Yak and Yeti is among the finest luxury 5-star hotels in the heart of Kathmandu, Nepal (http://yakandyeti.com/home/index.php)

Het moet zijn www.theyakandyeti.com/:

The Brewery, located at our Arvada location, is constantly brewing and crafting high quality beer. We utilize a small set up and focus on diversity and quality. We usually have on tap 6 flagship beers as well as another half dozen rotating seasonals at any given time.
Our Yak and Yeti Beers have won many local and national awards including several GABF (Great American Beer Fest) medals, All Colorado Brewfest, Best of Craft Beers (National), Colorado State Fair, Jefferson County Fair, Taste of Arvada, Denver A-List and more.
Beer geeks may enjoy learning more about our setup which includes annual production of around 350 barrel. We have a 7 barrel bright tank system (each barrel is 217 gallons) with oversized steam-jacketed kettle, undersized mash tun, 2 single fermenters and 2 doubles. All our beers are un- filtered and crafted to reduce gluten (www.theyakandyeti.com/brewery/).

Jeff Tyler has been the head brewer for the Yak & Yeti Brewpub since June 2016. He’s originally from New York but spent most of his beer drinking years in Boston drinking his share of Heady Topper and Night Shift beer. Jeff has a degree in Mechanical Engineering and spent almost a decade working in various positions in the engineering world from a department of energy lab, to designing medical devices and even helping design the Roomba vacuum cleaner. Jeff has been brewing for 6 years, is a BJCP certified beer judge and has judged at competitions across New England.
Jeff is a big fan of NE style IPA’s, Belgian style ales and draws a lot of inspiration from the culinary world when crafting beer recipes. While you will find a continued line up of Yak & Yeti’s classic, award winning, beer styles, you will always find a new and exciting pilot batch on tap. Peanut butter, banana nut brown ale; Mayan style chocolate stout; and a Gose infused with lavender and hibiscus are a few but the list is always expanding!
Outside of brewing, Jeff likes to travel, road bike and spends a lot of time in the mountains snowboarding and going on hikes with his dog, Sammy. He also has some mean card tricks up his sleeves. If you catch him around the brewery he just might show you one (www.theyakandyeti.com/about/about-our-brewer/).

Ze brouwen o.a.:

Om Namah Pilsner (formerly Namaste Pilsner)
Our Pilsner is a Northern German style hopped with German Tettnanger hops and has garnered 7 medals so far including Jeffco County Fair, Colorado State Fair and the All-Colorado Beerfest and Competition (took 1st overall in Lagers!), as well as 2nd place in a national competition called Best of Craft. Third Place winner at 2011 Colorado State Fair (www.theyakandyeti.com/brewery/yak-and-yeti-beer/).

Himalayan IPA
Our 2010 GABF-winning India Pale Ale is dry-hopped with Columbus and Cascade hops right before being transferred into the serving vessel. This isn’t East-coast or West-coast style IPA but rather pure Rocky Mountain gold (www.theyakandyeti.com/brewery/yak-and-yeti-beer/).

Chai Milk Stout
2013 Silver GABF medal winner – This stout is our flavored version of the milk stout. The Chai tea spices are the Yak and Yeti’s own blend. A perfect dessert drink (www.theyakandyeti.com/brewery/yak-and-yeti-beer/).

Jalapeño Lena
A light-colored but full flavored Jalapeño pepper beer. Huge fresh aroma from the pepper served right inside the keg! Some say it isn’t that hot, others can’t handle it. You decide. We also make red beers called Bloody Lena’s! (www.theyakandyeti.com/brewery/yak-and-yeti-beer/).

West-Coast Glutton
You like them RED, BIG & Hoppy?! This Double Red/DIPA is a Centennial and Cascade-hopped behemoth that gives some unique citrus and resiny flavors/aromas (www.theyakandyeti.com/brewery/yak-and-yeti-beer/).

Sherpa Porter
2016 Silver Medal “Best of Craft Beer”. This beer is smooth, dark and chocolately/roasty making it too big for a brown porter, it is instead on the light side of a Robust Porter.
(Yakety Yak) Don’ Talk Bock
This is a traditional Lenten beer in Germany called a Bockbier. It is a malt-heavy lager and is slightly sweet showcasing toasted notes and melenoidens (www.theyakandyeti.com/brewery/yak-and-yeti-beer/).

Peach Wheat
Traditional German-style Hefeweizen that is cloudy with half wheat and half barley aged in secondary with 84lb pounds of peach purée (www.theyakandyeti.com/brewery/yak-and-yeti-beer/).

Dogfish Head Brewery has a beer named Namaste and politely asked us to rename the beer before legal action would need to be taken.  I’m sort of bummed because it has garnered 7 medals for the Yak & Yeti so far including Jeffco County Fair, Colorado State Fair and the All-Colorado Beerfest and Competition (took 1st overall in Lagers!), as well as 2nd place in a national competition called Best of Craft.  All that attention apparently wasn’t lost on Dogfish Head.
I wanted to give everybody a history lesson on the beer and then ask for help in renaming the beer.
“Namaste” roughly translates to “I bow to you” and is a traditional Indian/Nepalese greeting and parting gesture.  It is usually accompanied with hands pressed together and a bow, of course.  Chris Kennedy was my predecessor and I’m presuming he named this beer.  If I remember correctly, he started making this beer as a lager but at one point it changed to a Kolsch-style Ale.  It was a Kolsch when I came on board but the name was still Namaste Pilsner.
I had recently just graduated from the World Brewing Academy where I spent 5 weeks in Germany and was highly affectionate with classic German Lagers.  I had drank plenty of authentic pilsners during this time and longed for fresh examples in America.   So my dilemma was: (a) change the name to Namaste Kolsch and keep Chris’ recipe, or (b) do I keep the name, ditch the recipe completely, develop a Pilsner recipe and source a lager yeast?
Ultimately, I chose to keep the name and change the recipe to a Northern German-style pilsner with 100% Weyermann Pilsner malt and about 35IBU’s of Tettnager hops.  The yeast I sourced from Del Norte Brewing.  You may be thinking that DNB made nothing but Mexican lagers and not German lagers but all Mexican lagers are decedents of German lagers, so where did the yeast come from?   When DNB closed its doors, I tried using yeast from two other breweries but the beer wasn’t the same, it was after I switched to the classic Weihenstephan 34/70 that this beer really started doing well.  The yeast produces slightly more sulfur than other yeast strains and thus gives the lager more of bite/edge and accentuates the hops/bitterness.
The Namaste Pilsner remains the 2nd best selling beer for us in the summer months behind the Himalayan IPA.  We need a new name for this favorite amongst many of us.  Any suggestions for a new name? (www.theyakandyeti.com/behind-the-beers-namaste-pilsner-soon-to-be-renamed/)

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