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vrijdag 13 november 2015

Sagres



Sagres is a Portuguese beer brand created in 1940, considered as a prestigious beverage at that time, which began the beer exportation overseas. The Sagres brand only uses natural products, following exclusive traditional methods without any additive or preservative in the production.As well as its competitor Super Bock, these two Portuguese brands lead the beer market in Portugal and represent 89.5% of the national market.
Over the years, the beer brand diversified its offer and launched a range of different beers.  There are first, a lager beer, a white one, a dark one, the “Sagres zero” (without alcohol), the “Sagres Bohemia” (a brown beer) and the “Sagres Radler”, a beer mixed with lemon juice (http://www.portugalweddingguide.com/why_portugal/arts_and_crafts).


Sagres (5,0% abv): is a pale lager (branca) made of 100% natural product, brewed according to exclusive traditional methods with water, malt, cereals which have not been malted and a rigorous selection of the finest hops. No additives or preservatives are used in its brewing. Moderately rich, it has a dry and pleasantly bitter taste. It is light and has a golden colour. Sagres was the first Portuguese brand to launch the Mini version (20cl), a success among consumers because of it small size and constant freshness.
Sagres Preta (4,3% abv): is a dark Munich type of beer, moderately rich, with a pleasant caramel "bouquet". For many, it is "the alternative drink to an immense minority who want to know the difference". For many years, Sagres Preta was the only dark ale in the domestic market.
Sagres Bohemia (6,2% abv): is an auburn beer, with an intense character, fruity aroma, creamy foam and a reddish amber colour. It was launched in 2005.
Sagres Radler (2,0% abv): Launched in 2013, it is the perfect beer for light drinking occasions. Made from Sagres beer together with natural citron juice, it is a medium bodied beer and fruit juice drink, with a straw-yellow colour, mildly opaque. In the palate, a gentle citric taste and odour, and a good acid/sweet balance, giving it a very high drinkability (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_de_Cervejas).


Sagres Sem Álcool (0,3% abv): is a light non-alcoholic beer, with a refreshing character and the taste of the Original Sagres beer. It was launched in 2005.
Sagres Sem Álcool Preta (0,3% abv): is a beer type Munich with a strong trace of malt and a smooth bitterness. The first non-alcoholic Sagres dark ale beer was launched in 2007.
Sagres Special Editions: as part of Sagres innovation strategy, once or twice a year special editions with limited quantities are launched to the market. Some examples like Sagres Preta Chocolate (chocolate-flavored dark ale beer), Sagres Festa (regular Sagres with 4,2% alcohol and -2º filtration process) or Sagres Puro Malte (highly selected materials and aromatic hop for demanding connaisseurs) have turned into huge market success (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_de_Cervejas).

Sagres brand was born in 1940 as a prestige beer, to represent Sociedade Central de Cervejas at the Portuguese World Exhibition inaugurated in May 1940. Sagres is named after a town of the same name, a small village located in the most south-westerly point of Europe, and where sailors learned all about the navigation science. With a similar fate to the caravels that left from Lisbon to faraway lands, Sagres was the first beer to be exported, arriving first in Gibraltar, and moving on to the Azores and the Overseas Territories of Angola, Cape Verde Islands, Guinea Bissau, Sao Tomé and Principe, Timor, Goa, Macau and Mozambique. Nowadays Sagres beer is present in almost every corner of the world, wherever there is a Portuguese community (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_de_Cervejas).

Portugal, officieel de Portugese Republiek (Portugees: República Portuguesa), is een land in het zuidwesten van Europa. Het vormt samen met het enige buurland Spanje, dat Portugal in het noorden en oosten begrenst, en de Britse exclave Gibraltar het Iberisch Schiereiland. In het zuiden en westen grenst Portugal, een onmiskenbaar maritiem land, aan de Atlantische Oceaan. Tot Portugal behoren tevens de eilandengroepen de Azoren en Madeira in deze oceaan.
De naam van Portugal vindt zijn oorsprong in Portus Cale (Latijns voor haven van Cale) en was de oude naam voor een historische plaats en haven in het huidige Portugal. Portus Cale lag in het noorden van Portugal, in het gebied van het huidige Grande Porto. De hoofdstad en tevens grootste stad van het land is Lissabon. (http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal). Lissabon werd in 1255 hoofdstad van Portugal (http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lissabon).

Sagres is named after the old, beautiful cape on the south-western tip of Portugal, where Prince Henry the Navigator started his naval school in the 15th century. Now where, other than Imbibe [en nu dan ook biervat.blogspot], would you learn that? Introduced in 1940, Sagres is the number-one-selling beer in Portugal. The brand’s marketing focuses on supporting Portugal’s top-flight football league, officially called the Liga Sagres (http://imbibe.com/feature/a-game-of-two-halves/8320).


Anyone who has visited Portugal will most likely have come across the country's favourite beer called Sagres, perhaps they might have even tried it. Now, the word "Sagres" has a special place in the Portuguese psyche, and not only because of the beer! (www.secretplaces.com/travelogue/special-destinations/portugal/algarve/sagres/more-than-just-a-beer/)



Sagres, a small town located in the most westerly point of the Algarve, was also where Henry the Navigator set up his Navigation school, which helped launch the great Portuguese maritime discoveries of the 16th century.
There’s an irony here. This land that helped discover the world actually remains pretty much undiscovered itself, even to many Portuguese, who flock to the warmer eastern Algarve rather than the more windswept Atlantic coastline (www.secretplaces.com/travelogue/special-destinations/portugal/algarve/sagres/more-than-just-a-beer/).



Sagres is located in the extreme southwest of continental Europe, and mark by two geomorphological structures: the Cape St. Vincent and Sagres Point, which establish a transition between the eastern coastal and meridional zones. Exposed to the Atlantic Ocean, it is influenced by Mediterranean currents, marked by promontories of high cliffs leading onto a platform that oscillates between 100–200 metres (330–660 ft) (in the north) and 50 metres (160 ft)). Whether by coastal erosion, or the hard rock, its composition influences the relief of the area.
Sagres is a civil parish in the municipality of Vila do Bispo, in the southern Algarve of Portugal. The name Sagres, follows from Sagrado (holy) owing to the important local religious practices and rituals that occurred during the pre-history of the nation. From here some of the Mediterranean peoples (including the Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans), venerated their divinities and which some believed, owing to the absence of a human settlement, was the gathering place for their gods. Christinas (Mozarabs) that lived in this zone, during the Muslim occupation, erected the Church of Corvo, where the mortal remains of the saint Vincent were deposited in the 8th century. The presence of martyr's remains lead the Portuguese to refer to the site and the peninsula as the Cape of Saint Vincent.
The area has been intrinsically linked to the nautical school first developed by Prince Henry the Navigator, which was installed in the 15th century. Although born in the provincial city of Porto (1394), he would be connected with his life in the parish, until his death in 1460, being known as the Infante of Sagres.
Sagres was created in 1519, through the division of the municipality of Vila do Bispo. In May 1587, Francis Drake (one of more notable adventurers and military officers in the Court of Elizabeth) disembarked 800 men who assaulted the fortress of Sagres. After two hours of intense combat, fortifications adjacent to the fortress were destroyed and its artillery was pillaged. Until 1834, Sagres was an independent municipality...(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagres_(Vila_do_Bispo))


The most southerly community in Portugal and the most south-westerly in continental Europe is at Sagres, overlooking the Bay of Sagres, which is itself flanked by two headlands: Atalaia Point and Sagres Point. It is only when you catch sight of the grey ramparts of the fortress blocking off the massive plateau of Sagres Point and cast your eye around the 10 km arc of sheer cliffs to the lighthouse at Cape St. Vincent that you get a real feeling for the tremendous historical importance of this place. It was at least as important during the Age of Discovery as Cape Canaveral was during the early years of space exploration. When the weather is fair, it can be a powerful sensation to sit quietly anywhere along the clifftops here and look out to sea and ponder the extraordinary adventurers who have passed this way.
It was to this place that the Infante D. Henrique, Prince Henry the Navigator, came in the 15th century to work on his obsession to push back the frontiers of the known world, and opened the phase in Portuguese history called The Discoveries. He was a prince, politician, warrior and grand master of the Order of Christ, but his fame endures mainly because of his monumental contribution to geographical discovery and the opening up of trade and cultural links between Europe and the East.
Columbus' introduction to Portugal back in 1476 was probably not the first and certainly not the last skirmish involving famous men off the Sagres and Cape St. Vincent headlands. That old sea dog Sir Francis Drake was very active in these waters harrying Spanish galleons returning from the Caribbean laden with treasure to fill Spain's war chest. Portugal was under Spanish rule at the time. With preparations well advanced for the "invincible armada" to invade England in 1587, Drake was sent by Elizabeth I to "singe the King of Spain's beard" in Cadiz harbour 150 miles east of Sagres. After destroying Spanish ships as they lay at anchor in Cadiz he went on to raze Vila do Infante (www.sagres.net/history.htm).

Sagres Point (Ponta de Sagres, Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsaɣɾɨʃ], from the Latin Promontorium Sacrum ‘Holy Promontory’) is a windswept shelf-like promontory located in the southwest Algarve region of southern Portugal. Only 4 km to the west and 3 km to the north lies Cape St. Vincent (Cabo de São Vicente), which is usually taken as the southwesternmost tip of Europe. The vicinity of Sagres Point and Cape St. Vincent has been used for religious purposes since Neolithic times, to which standing menhirs near Vila do Bispo, a few miles from both points, attest.
The promontory of Sagres has always been important for sailors because it offers a shelter for ships before attempting the dangerous voyage around Cape St. Vincent (could be Belixe Bay, between Sagres Point and the Cape, or Sagres Bay, to the east). Given the dangers of being blown onto the coastal rocks, captains preferred to wait in the lee of the point until favourable winds allowed them to continue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagres_Point).

On Ponta de Sagres, a giant finger of rock pointing to the ocean, stand buildings which evoke the past of a place that is part of the history of the world. The fortress is situated here, dating back to the 15th century, and the church of Nossa Senhora da Graça, which tradition says was founded by Prince Henry the Navigator (www.sagres.net/around.htm).

Henry the Navigator, son of King John I of Portugal, earned the respect of his countrymen early in life by his bravery in the Battle of Ceuta (1415), a victory over Muslim forces that allowed European forces to establish their first permanent position in North Africa. Military interests aside, Henry devoted much of his energy to the study of the sea and distant exotic places, real and imagined (www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1118.html).

Portugal, in the early 15th century, was one of the first European nations to unify, but had been plagued by its geographic isolation; it faced westward toward the Atlantic Ocean and was surrounded to the east and north by Spain. Direct access to the Mediterranean — the heart of Western civilization — was denied (www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1118.html).

Henry learned that the fierce Barbary pirates [the Portuguese could be fierce, too] were headquartered in the port of Ceuta at the northern tip of Africa. As noted before, Ceuta, across from Gibraltar, culminated the western end of the Muslim-controlled Silk Roads. The Straight of Gibraltar, the channel of water between the bottom tip of the European continent and the top tip of Africa, was so narrow that on a clear day a pirate in Ceuta could easily see the huge rock that marked Gibraltar on the northern side.
Prince Henry loved to study maps. It was easy for him to figure out that the nation that controlled Ceuta controlled the gate to the Mediterranean Sea. There was no other way for a ship to enter or leave from the western end of the waterway.(2)
Henry convinced his father, King Joáo, and his prince brothers, to attack and conquer Ceuta, which they did [along with Tangiers]. Then Henry and his family sailed into the port to stake their claim. Henry was bewildered by all the riches he saw: markets overflowing with ornate, richly colored rugs; sparkling plates of silver and gold; and pungent spices such as cinnamon, cardamom, and pepper. He wanted to obtain them.
However, Henry was still only a young prince, would never be king, and had no money. But he was smart, and he had gumption and ambition.
Henry was aware of the dangers of traveling to Asia through the Mediterranean Sea. Turkish pirates lurked behind every island and in every cove, waiting to attack and capture the ships of Christian nations. Henry was determined to find a way to the Far East that avoided the Muslim and Venetian monopoly. He began to research and study (http://beforewinthrop.com/section2/BW2-1-HenryNavigator.html).

To begin showing you how inter-related the monarchs of Portugal, Castile, and Aragon were, let us add that Prince Henry of Portugal would become the great uncle of Queen Isabella of Castile, who would bless Columbus on his westward course over the Ocean Sea. In other words, Henry’s younger brother, Prince Joäo, had a daughter named Isabella, who married the king of Castile, John II. Then John II and Isabella had a daughter they named Isabella, who was the famous Isabella of Castile who would marry the King of Aragon, Ferdinand. There is a chart illustrating this connection at the bottom of this article. If you like puzzles, you can figure out how Henry was related to Ferdinand as well (http://beforewinthrop.com/section2/BW2-1-HenryNavigator.html).

Infante Dom Henrique de Avis, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Henry the Navigator (Portuguese: Henrique, o Navegador) was an important figure in 15th-century Portuguese politics and in the early days of the Portuguese Empire. Through his administrative direction, he is regarded as the main initiator of what would be known as the Age of Discoveries. Henry was the third child of the Portuguese king John I and responsible for the early development of Portuguese exploration and maritime trade with other continents through the systematic exploration of Western Africa, the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, and the search for new routes.
King John I was the founder of the House of Aviz. Henry encouraged his father to conquer Ceuta (1415), the Muslim port on the North African coast across the Straits of Gibraltar from the Iberian Peninsula. He learnt of the opportunities from the Saharan trade routes that terminated there, and became fascinated with Africa in general; he was most intrigued by the Christian legend of Prester John and the expansion of Portuguese trade. Henry is regarded as the patron of Portuguese exploration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_the_Navigator).

Prince Henry the Navigator (Dom Henrique) was the son of King João of Portugal, born in 1394. He is most famous for the voyages of discovery that he organised and financed, which eventually led to the rounding of Africa and the establishment of sea routes to the Indies. Henry was also a very devout man, and was Governor of the Order of Christ from 1420 until his death in 1460 (www.thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/phenry.html).
(http://mrnussbaum.com/explorers/princehenry/)

Prince Henry (Henrique) the Navigator (1394-1460) was a Portuguese royal prince, soldier, and patron of explorers. Henry sent many sailing expeditions down Africa's west coast, but did not go on them himself. Thanks to Prince Henry's patronage, Portuguese ships sailed to the Madeira Islands (Joao Goncalves Zarco, 1420), rounded Cape Bojador (Eannes, 1434), sailed to Cape Blanc (Nuno Tristao, 1441), sailed around Cap Vert (1455), and went as far as the Gambia River (Cadamosto, 1456) and Cape Palmas (Gomes, 1459-1460).
These expeditions were sent to create much-needed maps of the West African coast, to defeat the Muslims, to spread Christianity, and to establish trade routes. Prince Henry helped begin the Great Age of Discovery that lasted from the 1400's to the early 1500's (www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/page/h/henry.shtml).


Prince Henry has become a legendary figure, and it is somewhat difficult to disentangle the historical facts from the heroic legends which surround him. Popular ideas about Henry are that he was a very learned and scientific man, skilled in the arts of navigation, and that he formed a school of navigation at Sagres and invented the caravel. However, these ideas are comparatively recent ones, and have no foundation in the historical records of the time (www.thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/phenry.html).

The farthest point south that was reached during Henry’s lifetime was probably present-day Sierra Leone; after his death, the pace of progress in Portuguese exploration accelerated markedly, suggesting that the prince’s reputation as a patron of explorers has been exaggerated. Although the colonization of Madeira proved, at least for a while, to be a brilliant success, most of his enterprises failed. The Canary Islands, the focus of his most unremitting obsessions, eventually fell to Spain, and Portugal did not succeed in garnering much of the African gold trade until more than 20 years after the prince’s death. His desire to convert the peoples of the Canary Islands and West Africa to Christianity was often voiced but was largely unsupported by action. Nor is Henry’s traditional reputation as a champion of the advancement of science supported by any genuine evidence. He did, however, commission chronicles by Zurara that presented a heroic image of himself—an image that persisted into the 20th century. His long-term importance thus has been as a legendary figure of the early stages of European exploration and discovery, as well as an exemplar of Portuguese nationalism (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/262114/Henry-the-Navigator/279088/Assessment).

Henry of Portugal, surnamed the "Navigator", Duke of Viseu, governor of the Algarve, was born at Oporto on the 4th of March 1394. He was the third (or, counting children who died in infancy, the fifth) son of João I, the founder of the Aviz dynasty, under whom Portugal, victorious against Castile and against the Moors of Morocco, began to take a prominent place among European nations....The prince died on the 13th of November 1460, in his town near Cape St. Vincent, and was buried in the church of St. Mary in Lagos, but a year later his body was removed to the superb monastery of Batalha. His great-nephew, King Dom Manuel had a statue of him placed over the center column of the side gate of the church of Belem. On the 24th of July 1840, a monument was erected to him at Sagres at the instance of the Marquis de Sá da Bandeira.
The glory attaching to the name of Prince Henry does not rest merely on the achievements effected during his own lifetime, but on the subsequent results to which his genius and perseverance had lent the primary inspiration. To him the human race is indebted, in large measure, for the maritime exploration, within one century (1420-1522), of more than half the globe, and especially of the great waterways from Europe to Asia both by east and by west (www.nndb.com/people/995/000094713/).

But before Henry could send out exploratory parties, he had to build better ships, create better sea charts, and refine his captains’ navigation tools. To carry out the necessary research and study, Henry established a school of navigation in a village called Terçanabal. It was strategically located at the southwestern-most point of the Iberian Peninsula. From this location, boats could access both the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean (http://beforewinthrop.com/section2/BW2-1-HenryNavigator.html).



In 1437 Henry and his younger brother, Fernando, gained Duarte’s reluctant consent for an expedition against Tangier. Ceuta had proved an economic liability, and they believed that possession of the neighbouring city would both ensure Ceuta’s safety and provide a source of revenue. Pedro opposed the undertaking. Henry and Fernando nevertheless attacked Tangier and met with disaster; Henry had shown poor generalship and mismanaged the enterprise. The Portuguese army would have been unable to reembark had not Fernando been left as hostage in exchange for Henry’s broken promise to surrender Ceuta. Fernando’s death at Fez in 1443 seems to have been felt by Henry as a grave charge upon his conscience (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/262114/Henry-the-Navigator/3156/Sponsorship-of-expeditions).

In 1437 Portugal sent an expedition against Tangier, led by Henry. The expedition failed, due largely to mistakes by Henry, and his youngest brother Fernão, the master of Avis, was captured. He was imprisoned in bad conditions, held hostage for the return of Ceuta to the Muslims. For eleven years the Portuguese debated whether or not to give up Ceuta, until in 1448 Dom Fernão died in captivity (www.thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/phenry.html).

... in reading Costa one gets the impression he is the first biographer to adequately point out the cold heartlessness of Henry's behavior with regard to his brother's sufferings in captivity [held hostage in Morocco due to an expedition was an abject failure and in order to permit the Portuguese to withdraw their troops Henry negotiated an agreement with Salah ben Salah in which his brother, Fernando, was turned over as hostage to insure compliance with the terms] and his central role in bringing them about (A Pointless New Biography of Prince Henry of Portugal (called 'the Navigator'), João Paulo Oliveira e Costa, Henrique O Infante (Esfera; Lisbon, 2009)).

The Spanish had ventured as far south as the Canary Islands off the coast of Cape Bojador. But their primitive ships and navigation tools could not take them any farther. The ships could sail south with the currents, but they could not return against the wind with their large square sails. To make sure other Europeans did not try to sail south, the Spanish spread a rumor that it was impossible to navigate in the southern seas past the equator (http://beforewinthrop.com/section2/BW2-1-HenryNavigator.html).

Henry's main aim was to explore, and specifically to go south beyond Cape Bojador, just south of the Canaries, whose reefs and difficult currents had presented a psychological stopping point for previous expeditions. For generations, Spanish sea-lore had asserted that the coast of Africa was unnavigable past this point, and it took Henry 15 expeditions between 1424 and 1434 before one passed beyond the Cape. Gil Eannes finally rounded it in 1434. In 1435 Henry sent Eannes once again, this time with Afonso Gonçalves Baldaya, the royal cupbearer. They reached another fifty leagues down the coast. There they saw footprints of men and camels, but no people (www.thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/phenry.html).

Although he was called Prince Henry the Navigator by the English, Prince Henry never sailed on any of the voyages of discovery he paid for. Instead, Prince Henry started a school for the study of the arts of navigation, mapmaking, and shipbuilding. This way ball of his sailors would have a better knowledge of sailing and the coarse to Africa could be safer and easier.
Despite the knowledge shared at his school for sailors, Prince Henry had a great deal of difficulty persuading his captains to sail beyond Cape Bojodor off the west coast of Africa. According to legend, beyond this point in an area known as the "Green Sea of Darkness," the sun was so close to the Earth that a person’s skin would burn black, the sea boiled, ships caught on fire, and monsters hid waiting to smash the ships and eat the sailors most sailors became uneasy when thinking of the dangers.
It took fourteen voyages over a period of 12 years until a ship finally reached the equator.
During the two-year period from 1444 to 1446, Prince Henry made this trip a little more fun the , sending between 30 and 40 of his ships on missions. The last voyage sponsored by Prince Henry sailed over 1,500 miles down the African coast.
Although he never sailed on the expeditions, the voyages that he paid for in the mid-1400s helped launch Portugal into the front of the race to find a sea route to the Indies. (http://csmh.pbworks.com/w/page/7309494/1418%20-%20Prince%20Henry%20the%20Navigator).

The exploration of America came about sooner than it did because of Henry the Navigator. The word navigate comes from the Latin words navis, meaning ship, and agere, which means to drive. Henry the Navigator never drove his own ships. But because of him, ship captains and explorers accomplished amazing things – all in an attempt to find new passages to Cathay (http://beforewinthrop.com/section2/BW2-1-HenryNavigator.html).

Prince Henry of Portugal (1394-1460) was called the Navigator not because he went to sea himself, but rather because he encouraged exploration in the early 15th century. He did the organization that was needed for long voyages to succeed. He began sending out expeditions in 1418 (www.loeser.us/examples/princehenry.html).

No one used the nickname 'Navigator' to refer to prince Henry during his lifetime or in the following three centuries. The term was coined by two nineteenth-century German historians: Heinrich Schaefer and Gustav de Veer. Later on it was made popular by two British authors who included it in the titles of their biographies of the prince: Henry Major in 1868 and Raymond Beazley in 1895. In Portuguese, even in modern times, it is uncommon to call him by this epithet; the preferred use is "Infante D. Henrique" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_the_Navigator).

Henry the Navigator, Portuguese Henrique o Navegador, byname of Henrique, infante (prince) de Portugal, duque (duke) de Viseu, senhor (lord) da Covilhã   (born March 4, 1394, Porto, Portugal—died November 13, 1460, Vila do Infante, near Sagres), Portuguese prince noted for his patronage of voyages of discovery among the Madeira Islands and along the western coast of Africa. The epithet Navigator, applied to him by the English (though seldom by Portuguese writers), is a misnomer, as he himself never embarked on any exploratory voyages (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/262114/Henry-the-Navigator).

Not surprisingly, the story told in a biography suitable for a ten-year-old is little more than a series of half-truths.  Even the nickname “the Navigator” is a misnomer, invented by nineteenth century historians eager to establish the Portuguese grandson of John of Gaunt as the forefather of British maritime success.  In fact, the prince’s only personal experience of seafaring was trips along the Portuguese post and the occasional short hop to Morocco.
Henry was an ambitious prince, a would-be Crusader, a celibate Christian knight, a talented administrator, and a shrewd businessman.  For more than forty years he funded expeditions of exploration along the west coast of Africa, pushing Portuguese seamen to sail further than they ever had before.  By providing the financial support and intellectual stimulus for Portugal’s voyages of discovery, Prince Henry the Navigator transformed Portugal from a small, impoverished nation into Europe’s first maritime empire.  Now that I think about it, a hero that a grown-up nerd can still admire (www.historyinthemargins.com/2012/03/07/prince-henry-the-so-called-navigator/).

When Infante Dom Henry the Navigator commenced his explorations, which would initiate the Portuguese Age of Discoveries, at his Vila do Infante, Sagres peninsula lacked the necessary requirements for such large undertakings. Fresh water was scarce, agriculture was minimal, there was a shortage of wood for shipbuilding, no deep-water landing site, and the population was small. Henry re-populated a village called Terçanabal, which had been deserted due to continuous pirate attacks on the coast. The village was situated in a strategic position for his maritime enterprises and was later called Vila do Infante.
Henry the Navigator employed cartographers, such as Jehuda Cresques, to help him chart the coast of Mauretania in the wake of voyages he had caused to made to there. He also engaged an expert map and instrument-maker, Jayme of Majorca, so that his captains might have the best nautical information. This probably led to the legend of the Nautical School of Sagres (although a "school" also means a group of followers). There was no centre of navigational science or any supposed observatory, if compared to the modern definition of "observatory" or "navigational centre". The centre of his expeditions was actually at Lagos, further to the east along the Algarve coast. Later Portuguese voyages left from Belém, just west of Lisbon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagres_Point).

By seeking papal approval first, Henry began the sponsorship of a long series of exploratory ventures southward along the coast of Africa. A lucrative trade in slaves and gold quickly developed. Henry’s commercial success and other military victories enabled him to concentrate on his first love — exploration and the arts and sciences associated with it.
Henry the Navigator’s greatest contribution was the establishment of a government-sponsored institute at Sagres, which maintained a school, an observatory, and a base for exploratory ventures at nearby Lagos. Books and charts were collected in a library and reports were solicited from contemporary travelers (www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1118.html).

In 1448, Álvaro Fernandes reached a point 110 leagues beyond Cape Verde, and this was the farthest south reached during Prince Henry's lifetime. At around this time, a fort was built on the island of Arguim. This gave a forward base for the explorers and traders, since they were encountering hostility from the natives on the coast.
During the regency of D. Pedro, Prince Henry had begun to build a new headquarters on the promontory at Sagres. Both the purpose and site of his Vila there have been hotly debated. It seems likely that the Vila was built on the westerly cape at Sagres, known now as the Ponta de Sagres, within the walls of the old Moorish fort. A chapel attributed to Prince Henry still stands at this site.
Although, as he grew older, Henry spent more and more time at Sagres, he also spent a good deal of time at court in Setubal or Santarem, or wherever it happened to be, and at the headquarters of the Order of Christ in Tomar (www.thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/phenry.html).

Henry the Navigator by the English, Prince Henry never actually sailed on any of the voyages of discovery he sponsored. Instead, Prince Henry established a school for the study of the arts of navigation, mapmaking ...(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1118.html,
www.gwinnett.k12.ga.us/CentervilleES/mholland/Exploration/Prince%20Henry.htm)


The Nautical School in Sagres zou in 1420 zijn opgericht, maar Portugese geschiedkundigen twijfelen of er wel een dergelijk instituut is geweest
(zie The Alleged Nautical School Founded in the Fifteenth Century at Sagres by Prince Henry of Portugal, Called the 'Navigator', W. G. L. Randles, Imago Mundi Vol. 45, (1993), pp. 20-28). Aangezien een school ook leerlingen/volgelingen heeft (en hiervan administratie voert), en een observatiecentrum observeert (en hiervan verslag legt) zou hiervan toch bewijs moeten zijn. Aangezien dat ontbreekt, zou het gebouw nabij Sagres point ook gewoon een buiten verblijf of iets dergelijks kunnen zijn...Alhoewel...

Twenty five centuries ago in Greece, the word for school was "schoole", meaning CONVERSATION!  It did NOT signify a "building with doors and windows or a group of buildings, like in a university". Such was the definition of school at the time of Plato, Aristotle and even Prince Henry, the Navigator, five centuries ago: CONVERSATION!    Each man, be it Plato, Aristotle or Prince Henry the Navigator, was his own school. Wherever they were, their school existed! The subjects which composed their schools were so new that when they CONVERSED with their consultants or with their students, they then coordinated all the knowledge to form their own unique schools. Unfortunately, some so called "scholars" analyze the definition of those classical schools by today's definition: a building or group of buildings with doors and windows, desks and chairs! This is incorrect! To understand the true meaning of their schools, we should try to place ourselves in those classical times! (www.dightonrock.com/thebreastsofthenauticalschoolofs.htm)

In 1459 a conference was held in Florence, attended by Florentine merchants, envoys of the King of Portugal and the famous geographer Toscanelli (who was said to have been the inspiration for Columbus). Supposedly, Fernão Martins brought back from this conference the map of Fra Mauro, previously commissioned in Venice by Afonso V. This map was a considerable advance, incorporating information from Marco Polo and Nicola da Conti's journeys in Asia. In also included more accurate information on the indian ocean and the east coast of Africa.
In 1460, the year of Henry's death, King Afonso V granted the Knights of Christ a 5% levy on all merchandise from the new African lands.
Prince Henry died at Sagres on 13th November 1460. His principal heir was D. Fernão, King Afonso's younger brother. Henry granted two of the Azores to D. Fernão, and handed over the spiritual jurisdiction of these islands to the Order of Christ (www.thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/phenry.html).


After ten years of exploration, one of Henry's navigators, Gil Eanes, rounded Cape Bojador on the coast of Morocco in 1434. In 1439, the Portuguese settled the Azore Islands. When his expeditions reached the Senegal River and the Cape Verde Islands, a profitable trade in gold and slaves allowed his captains to become very rich.
Shortly before Henry's death, one of his Captains, Pedro de Sintra reached Sierra Leone. After his death, Portuguese navigators like Dias and da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached India (www.loeser.us/examples/princehenry.html).

Because of its location near the ocean, Portugal is a country which consumes a lot of fish. Saying that Portuguese people are codfish eaters is a cliché, actually, they eat much more sardines than codfish. So it is not difficult to find quality grilled sardines in Portuguese restaurants which is very popular in this country, we even recommend you to try it at least once during your stay in Portugal.
Because Portugal is the south western most country and has the Atlantic Ocean in the west and more than 1000 km of long coast with beaches and natural cliffs and escarpments it will be impossible for you to miss our sea sunset for its bright and worm colours and is reflection in the blue and calm sea. And this is one of the most important reasons for thousands of couples have already chosen us for wedding destination, because in Portugal a wedding by the sea or a beach wedding is possible!
There are beaches all along Portugal, each more beautiful than the last so we can’t talk about all of them. Nevertheless, some catch more the attention, particularly in the Algarve region which is the main touristic destination in Portugal.
In Albufeira (Algarve) you will find the most popular beaches because of their golden sand, dunes, coves and cliffs such as the Dona Ana-Lagos beach and Praia da Rocha, a long wide beach with white sand backed by red cliffs. Still in the Algarve region, Vilamoura is the largest luxury resort in Europe, perfect for a family trip. Praia da matinha (Algarve) is one of the most emblematic and beautiful beaches of Portugal, considered by the Michelin Guide as one of the 10 most beautiful beaches in Europe and as one of the 100 most beautiful beaches in the world. In 1998, it was also awarded with the "Golden Beach" award given by the Portuguese Ministry of the Environment because of its natural qualities such as high quality water.
The Guincho beach is the biggest and most popular beach in Cascais, near Lisbon, surrounded by dunes, thin sand, bright sky and crystal clear water. International championships of surf, kite surf and windsurf are also organized on this idyllic beach. In the same region, between Sesimbra e Setúbal, the Portinho da Arrabida beach is a delightful small beach in a calm bay with crystal blue-green water that is excellent for swimming and diving. Nearby, the Coelhos beach has golden sand and very calm waters. They are the two most beautiful and tranquil beaches around Lisbon.
Espinho Porto beach is located at 15 km from Porto city. Permanently sunny, it is the right place for people who want to spend a calm and quiet break in Portugal. It offers various kinds of water sports and funas well as Golf courses which are another major attraction of Espinho (www.portugalweddingguide.com/why_portugal/arts_and_crafts).

To order a standard 300ml draught in a Portuguese bar, restaurant or cafe ask for um imperial or uma caneca for a 500ml glass. A bottle of beer is uma garrafa. - See more at: http://www.portugalvisitor.com/portugal-culture/portuguese-beer#sthash.anbuXOhq.dpuf (www.portugalvisitor.com/portugal-culture/portuguese-beer)

Portugal is an ideal place for people who enjoy a drink. Along with Port wine and Madeira and Portugal's other excellent wines, the country also produces some very palatable beer (cerveja).
Beer has a long history in Portugal and was first produced when the country was the Roman province of Lusitania.
Contemporary Portuguese beer dates from the early 20th century, when today's modern breweries were established.
Sagres and Super Bock are Portugal's biggest beer brands. Super Bock, based near Porto in northern Portugal, is the market leader in the country with over 40% of total beer sales and a strong presence in most Portuguese bars and restaurants. The parent company Unicer produces a variety of strong, pale lagers as well as a dark beer, a stout and a low-alcohol product.
Central de Cervejas (SCC), now under the control of Dutch brewer Heineken, is Portugal's number two beer producer. It's best-selling beer is Sagres, named after the town of the same name
Coral, produced by Empresa de Cervejas da Madeira (Madeira Brewery), is Portugal's number three beer and hails from the Atlantic island of Madeira. Coral is available as a lager and stout and low-alcohol variants of both the lager and stout.
Sagres is generally associated with the Lisbon area, Super Bock with Porto and Coral with Madeira.
(www.portugalvisitor.com/portugal-culture/portuguese-beer).

Sagres is van SCC:
Sociedade Central de Cervejas (SCC) (full name: SCC – Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas, S.A.) is a Portuguese brewery, founded in 1934. Its main output is the Sagres brand of beers. The company has been controlled since April 2008 by Heineken.
Sociedade Central de Cervejas was established in 1934, with the aim of selling the beers produced by the former breweries, Companhia Produtora de Malte e Cerveja Portugália, Companhia de Cervejas Estrela, Companhia de Cervejas Coimbra and Companhia da Fábrica de Cerveja Jansen. In 1935, and after 99 years of activity, Fábrica de Cervejas Trindade was integrated by Sociedade Central de Cervejas (SCC).
In 2003, Scottish & Newcastle purchases Parfil’s total shareholding, assuming total control of Sociedade Central de Cervejas and Sociedade da Água de Luso.
In December 2004, the Company became known as SCC - Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas, S.A., a name that reflects in a better way, the scope of its activity, which not only includes beer, but also other drinks, such as water and soft drinks.
In 2007, after a consortium was set up between Carlsberg and Heineken a takeover bid was made for the acquisition of the Scottish & Newcastle Group. As a result of the negotiations, the acquisition was accomplished, with Heineken taking over the control of Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas (SCC) on 29 April 2008, following the conclusion of the Consortium’s acquisition of Scottish & Newcastle (S&N). This consortium was dissolved after the deal was completed and the traditional healthy relationship between both groups remained untouched (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_de_Cervejas).

Sociedade Central de Cervejas was established in 1934, with the aim of selling the beers produced by the former breweries, Companhia Produtora de Malte e Cerveja Portugália, Companhia de Cervejas Estrela, Companhia de Cervejas Coimbra and Companhia da Fábrica de Cerveja Jansen. In 1935, and after 99 years of activity, Fábrica de Cervejas Trindade was integrated by Sociedade Central de Cervejas (SCC).
Centralcer – Central de Cervejas, E.P. is incorporated in 1977 as a result of the merger of Sociedade Central de Cervejas, S.A.R.L. (incorporated in 1934) with Cergal – Cervejas de Portugal, S.A.R.L. (incorporated in 1972).
Centralcer – Central de Cervejas, S.A. was therefore created as a result of the above-mentioned company’s conversion into a joint stock company, regulated according to Decree-Law no. 300/90 of 24 September. The Company’s total share capital is privatised in 1990, and it is the first operation of this kind to be undertaken in Portugal. The Bavaria Group purchases a shareholding in Centralcer – Central de Cervejas, S.A., and becomes one of its main shareholders.
In 2000, there is a further alteration to the company’s shareholding structure, as a result of its sale to VTR-SGPS, S.A., a group of Portuguese investors (Parfil, BES, Fundação Byssaia Barreto, Olinveste and Fundação Oriente), amongst whom are the inheritors of SCC’s founding shareholders. In its turn and in the summer of the same year, this group assigned a 49% share to the international brewing group Scottish & Newcastle.
In 2007, after a consortium was set up between Carlsberg and Heineken a takeover bid was made for the acquisition of the Scottish & Newcastle Group. As a result of the negotiations, the acquisition was accomplished, with Heineken taking over the control of Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas (SCC) on 29 April 2008, following the conclusion of the Consortium’s acquisition of Scottish & Newcastle (S&N). This consortium was dissolved after the deal was completed and the traditional healthy relationship between both groups remained untouched (https://finnishbeerlovers.wordpress.com/2013/03/23/central-de-cervejas-fun-in-portugal/).

Sagres brand was born in 1940 as a prestige beer, to represent Sociedade Central de Cervejas at the Portuguese World Exhibition inaugurated in May 1940. Sagres is named after a town of the same name, a small village located in the most south-westerly point of Europe, and where sailors learned all about the navigation science. With a similar fate to the caravels that left from Lisbon to faraway lands, Sagres was the first beer to be exported, arriving first in Gibraltar, and moving on to the Azores and the Overseas Territories of Angola, Cape Verde Islands, Guinea Bissau, Sao Tomé and Principe, Timor, Goa, Macau and Mozambique. Nowadays Sagres beer is present in almost every corner of the world, wherever there is a Portuguese community (https://finnishbeerlovers.wordpress.com/2013/03/23/central-de-cervejas-fun-in-portugal/).

Sagres Dark Beer: "DRINKING" Print Ad by Y&R Lisboa 2000 (www.coloribus.com/adsarchive/prints/sagres-dark-beer-drinking-2579405/)


Sagres Beer is the most popular brew in Portugal. It has a clever ad campaign, which Gloria Steinem and Pat Robertson may not care for, that features a black bikini-clad girl in her twenties coming out of the ocean to hover over an illuminating golden glass of Sarges. 
Sagres started in 1940, and it is named after the town of Sagres, Portugal. It was first exported to mostly Portuguese colonies, including Mozambique which is now independent.
Popular types of Sagres include Sagres Preta, a Munich-type beer, Sagres Limalight which has a natural lemon flavor and Sagres Bohemia which is an auburn brew with a fruity aroma (http://nocturnalguy38.blogspot.nl/2010/11/50-beers-around-world-sagres-portugal.html).


Sagres, Borders, December 2001

Sagres Beer: ""Portugal vs England"" Outdoor Advert by Euro Rscg Lisbon, GPI, June 1999, 

Taste: Full, round flavours of malt, toffee, bread and hints of coffee. Wonderfully complex and rich.


SARDINES was done by Y&R Lisboa advertising agency for product: Sagres Beer (brand: Sagres) in Portugal. It was released in the Oct 1998 

The Print Ad titled CASKS was done by Y&R Lisboa advertising agency for product: Sagres Beer (brand: Sagres) in Portugal. It was released in the Nov 1998.


Within the tightly formed battleground of the Portugese beer market, the Sagres brand had not been evolved to its fullest potential, and on-shelf the brand’s erosion of quality and national pride was a threat to one of Portugal’s most iconic beers. Could beer brand experts Claessens International give Sagres back its national pride and rebuild its emotional bond with consumers?
From its birth in Lisbon in 1940, the Sagres beer brand has been inextricably linked to its home country Portugal. A proud beer for a proud nation, the brand developed its specific character around the emblem of the country, the passion of its people and the quality of its offering. From the Forties to the Noughties, Sagres carefully developed its brand, maintaining its core values of authenticity and quality to retain its emotional connection with the Portuguese people, while representing the essence of Portugal in its export markets.
Keen to continue to move forward and maintain its relevance in the 21st century, 2007 saw the Sagres brand go through a process of modernisation. The rebranding process succeeded in giving the beer a more contemporary image by removing or suppressing many of its brand elements in order to create a minimal, cleaner look and feel. This combined with the erosion of its Portugese iconography, reduced the emotional bond with the consumer and created a low-quality uncared-for presentation. However, it wasn’t long before the company realised it had gone too far, and in 2011 they turned to beer brand experts Claessens International for help.
Claessens’ aim was to give the brand back its pride and re-establish it as the beer of Portugal in order to reconnect with consumers and stand out within an increasingly crowded market, Sagres needed to become a dynamic contemporary brand in Portugal.
Claessens looked in depth at the evolution and development of the Sagres assets, investigating where it could add more quality, and exploring Portugal to discover how to make the coat of arms emblem more authentic, emotional and yet at the same time cutting-edge and contemporary. The company also looked at brand standout, aiming to give the label more impact and dynamism. Then Claessens started to re-build the brand (http://popsop.com/2012/05/sagres-the-rebuilding-of-a-national-icon/).

Het logo van het Sagres-bier is vergelijkbaar met dat van Infante Dom Henrique...en Portugal.



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